### VITAL CALCULATIONS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS MUST TO KNOW

Hi civil engineers today I will share some useful calculations . this calculations are fundamental for civil engineers. therefore this calculations are used most of the times to calculate various materials like cement and sand volume in mortar ,brick volume in brick word, cement ,sand and aggregate in concrete, volume of steel in reinforced cement concrete.

QUANTITY OF CEMENT ,FINE AGGREGATE, COARSE AGGREGATE REQUIRED FOR DIFFERENT GRADES OF CEMENT CONCRETE FOR ONE CUBIC METRE.

 GRADE OF CONCRETE RATIO CEMENT BAGS FINE AGGREGATE (SAND ) M3 COARSE AGGREGATE 20 mm M3 COARSE AGGREGATE 40 mm M3 M7.5 1:4:8 3.40 0.48 - 0.96 M10 1:3:6 4.40 0.46 0.92 - M15 1:2:4 6.30 0.44 0.88 - M20 1:1.5:3 8.05 0.42 0.84 - NOTE: ONE BAG CEMENT = 50 KG OR 0.034 CUB METRE

DRIVE HOW IT IS CALCULATED

for one m concrete for the ratio 1:2:4
Quantity of cement is one part
Quantity of sand is two parts
Quantity of coarse aggregate is four parts
total 1+2+4 = 7 unit

VOLUME OF CEMENT

Volume of cement = 1/7 x 1.5
=0.214 m3
= 0.214 x 1440    (note for unit weight of cement  ( 1m cement ) = 1440 kg / m)
= 308.16 kg
= 308.16/50
= 6.30 bags

VOLUME OF SAND

Volume of sand = (2/7) x 1.5
= 0.428 m3
Volume of coarse aggregate
Volume of coarse aggregate = (4/7 ) x 1.5 = 0.857 m3

QUANTITY OF CEMENT ,SAND ( FINE AGGREGATE ) , COARSE AGGREGATE AND BRICKS REQUIRED FOR DIFFERENT RATIO OF MORTAR IN ONE CUBIC METRE OF BRICK WORK.

 MORTAR RATIO CEMENT BAGS SAND (m3) BRICKS ( nos ) 1:2 3.45 0.24 500 1:3 2.40 0.25 500 1:4 1.75 0.25 500 1:5 1.49 0.26 500 1:6 1.20 0.25 500 1:7 1.00 0.25 500

DERIVE HOW IT IS CALCULATED

To find no of bricks in one cub.metre
Size of brick = 19 cm x 9 cm x 9 cm
Mortar thick = 1 cm
Volume of one brick without mortar = 0.19 x 0.09 x 0.09
= 0.00154 m3
So size of brick with mortar thick = 20 cm x 10 cm x 10 cm
Now volume of one brick = 0.3 x 0.1 x0.1
= 0.002 m3
No of brick in one cub metre = 1 / 0.002
= 500 nos

TO FIND VOLUME OF MORTAR ( CEMENT ,SAND, ) REQUIRED FOR ONE CUBIC METRE

Volume covered by bricks in one cubic metre without mortar = volume of one brick x no of brick
= 0.00154 x 500
= 0.76 m3
Volume of mortar = total volume – volume of bricks ( 500 nos )
= 1 – 0.76
= 0.24m3 ( wet volume )
Now we are take mortar ratio is 1:5
Total unit = 1+5 = 6
Volume of cement = (1x0.24 x 1.3 )/ 6
= 0.052 m3
= 0.052 x 1440
= 74.88 kg
=78.44/ 50
= 1.49 bags
Volume of sand = (5 x 0.24 x 1.3 ) / 6
= 0.26 m3

BREAK UP COST OF BUILDING

1.earth work excavation and filling     = 1 % total cost
2.foundation concrete                             = 5 % total cost
3.damp proof course                                = 1% total cost
4.brick work                                                 = 34 % total cost
5. flooring                                                     = 16 % total cost
6. roofing                                                      = 20 % total cost
7. joinery                                                     = 16 % total cost
8 plastering                                                = 10 % total cost
9. white washing ,colour washing and painting  = 2  % total cost
10 .miscellaneous                                    = 5 % total cost

PERCENTAGE OF REINFORCEMENT

Lintel and beam  =  1 % to 2.0 %
Column                   =  1 % to 5.0 %
Foundation           =  0.5 % to 0.8 %
Roof slab               =  0.7 % to 0.8 %

BINDING WIRE CALCULATION

Binding wire of ting wire is used to tie-up reinforcements. Gauge of binding wire 14 to 16 gauge or 2 mm  dia. Binding wire is calculated based on total volume of reinforcement . usually  1 kg to 1.3 kg per quintal  ( 100 kg ) of taken as reinforcement.

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