CRACKS IN BUILDING AND CONCRETE




CRACKS IN BUILDINGS

For cracks occur in building when the building or its components subjected to external forces higher than those which can withstand. Also cracks appear low quality construction materials used in structure and improper construction techniques etc
Cracks can be divide into following
1. Structural cracks 
2. Non structural cracks

STRUCTURAL CRACKS


Structural cracks may be occur due to rough design over loading of the structural components and similar factors structural cracks totally damage the structure because its is the cracks in main load bearing element of the building  like cracks in columns , foundation , beam or slabs etc. Some times structural cracks recover not possible.

NON STRUCTURAL CRACKS

 non structural cracks may occur due to some variations like temperature variations moisture variations and the effect of gases ad liquid cam cause internal forces developed in the building this force can make cracks non structural cracks is easily recoverable and remedial measures are taken to prevent they re occur

Non structural cracks classified as horizontal cracks vertical cracks , diagonal cracks and irregular cracks

HORIZONTAL CRACKS IN MASONRY AND PLASTER



For load bearing wall the roof slab is to be expensed in day time due to heat of sun and alternative contraction in knight time this process can make pushing out the top coarse of masonry and its cause horizontal cracks in masonry structure.

PREVENTION METHOD

Causes of cracks due to temperature variation can be minimized providing expansion and contraction joints in specified locations.
Painting top or roof with reflective finish can minimize cracks

VERTICAL CRACKS


If the building has large openings in the external walls it can be seen that portion of wall immediately below the sill is subjected to much lesser loads as compared to the portion of the wall on either side of the window openings this results in uneven loading of the wall which may cause vertical cracks .

TRANSVERSE CRACKS


Continuous structure like sunshade, long open verandah slab can expansion in day time due to heat of sun alternatively contraction in knight time it will cause transverse cracks

CRACKS IN CONCRETE

There are six type of cracks appear in concrete. They are follow as

1.thermal  contraction cracks
2.structural cracks
3.sulphate attack cracks
4.alkali aggregate reaction cracks
5.shrinkage cracks
6. Plastic cracks

THERMAL  CONTRACTION CRACKS

For horizontal cracks near window ,sunshade and sill level due to pull exerted on the wall by roof slab. Because expansion  of slab in day time and shrinkage in knight time due to climatic condition changing . This pull result in bending of wall which cause crack in weak section that is at the near of sunshade and large span rooms.

STRUCTURAL CRACKS

Cracks occur where the applied forces on the members are greater than what they could withstand the imbalance in the load causes serious strains in the structural and ultimately the sign of distress appear as cracks .

SULPHATE ATTACK CRACKS


Sulphate attack on cement i concrete and mortar of masonry in foundation and plinth would weaken these components and in course o time cause unequal settlement of foundation and cracks in the super structure if brick aggregates used in base concrete of flooring contains too much of soluble sulphates and water table is high so as to make it in damp condition the base concrete will swell and cause cracking for the concrete floor.


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