ROAD SIGNS AND ITS FULL DETAILS



ROAD SIGNS

Road signs or traffic signs are the devices mounted on road side they are fixed or portable devices which specify information either by word or signals. Traffic signs are most used cheapest traffic control devices.
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WHAT IS PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE AND CLASSIFICATIONS OF PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE




PRE- STRESSED CONCRETE

Normal concrete structure have high compressive strength and very low tension strength .in order to withdraw the weakness of concrete in tension pre-tensioning technique is used .pre-stressed concrete it mean the intentional creation of permanent compressive stresses in a structure for the purpose of improving its behavior and strength for many service situations.

CLASSIFICATION OF PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE

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HOW TO CALCULATE RENT OF BUILDING




As a civil engineer compulsory we want to know how to calculate rent of building like  residential commercial  etc .so in this topic i will share some examples for how to calculate the annual rent and monthly rent of buildings.

EXAMPLE 1

CALCULATE THE ANNUAL RENT OF BUILDING WITH THE FOLLOWING DATA

Cost of land          =   RS . 30000
Cost of building    =  RS. 900000
Estimated life       =   60 years.
Return expect      =   5 % of land and 6% on building.

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TYPES OF ESTIMATES





ESTIMATE

Estimate is the defined as the process of calculating the quantities and cost of various items of works. it  depends on the plan section and elevation

TYPES OF ESTIMATES

1.Approximate estimate
2.Detailed estimate
3.Revised estimate
4.Supplementary estimate
5.Sub estimate
6.Annual maintenance estimate  or repair estimate
7. Complete estimate

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MEASUREMENTS OF MATERIALS BASED ON IS 1200 REVISED




MEASUREMENTS OF MATERIALS BASED ON IS 1200 REVISED


SI NO
PARTICULAR OF ITEM
UNIT OF MEASUREMENT
UNIT OF PAYMENT
1
EARTH WORK


Cum
Cum

Cum


Per cum
Per cum
Per cum

1.earth work in excavation
2.earthwork in filling in foundation trenches
3.earth work in filling in plinth

2
CONCRETE


Cum
Cum
Cum
Cum
Cum
Cum
Cum


Per cum
Per cum
Per cum
Per cum
Per cum
Per cum
Per cum

1.lime concrete in foundation
2.cement concrete in litels
3.rcc in slab
4 c c or rcc chujja,sunshade
5.lc in roof terracing
6.cement concrete bed
7.rcc sunshade

3
DAMP PROOF COURCE DPC

Sqm

Per sqm

Thickness should be mentioned

4
BRICKWORK


Cum
Cum
Cum
Sqm
Cum
Cum

Per cum
Per cum
Per cum
Per cum
Per sqm
Per cum
Per cum

1.brickwork in foundation
2.brick work in plith
3.brick work in super structure
4.thin partition walls
5.brick work in arches
6.reinforced brick work

5
STONE WORK


Cum


Per cum
Stone masonry

6
WOOD WORK



Cum
Sqm
Numbers




Per cum
Per sqm
Per number

1.door sand windows frames
Or chowkhats rafters beams
2.shutters of doors and windows
3.doors and windows fittings


7.
STEEL WORK



Quintal

Quintal

Quintal

Quintal
Quintal
Sqm




Per Quintal

Per Quintal

Per Quintal

Per Quintal
Per Quintal
Per sqm


1.steel reinforcement bars etc in rcc and rb work quintal
2.bending binding of steel reinforcement
3.rivets bolts nuts ancjor bolts,lewis bolts,holding down bolts
4.iron hold fasts
5.iron railing
6.iron grills

8
ROOFING


Cum

Sqm
Sqm
Sqm



Per Cum

Per sqm
Per sqm
Per sqm

1.rcc and rb slab roof
2.lc roof over and inclusive of tiles or brick or stone slab etc
3.centering ans shuttering form work
4.ac sheet roofing

9
PLASTERING POINTS AND FINISHING


Sqm
Sqm

Sqm
Sqm
Sqm


Per sqm
Per sqm

Per sqm
Per sqm
Per sqm

1.plastering cement or lime mortar
2.pointing
3.white washing colour washing cement wash
4.distempering
5.painting varnishing

10
FLOORING



Sqm
Sqm
Sqm




Per sqm
Per sqm
Per sqm

1.25 mm cement concrete over 75 mm lime concrete floor
2.25mm or 40 cc floor
3.doors and window sills

11

RAIN WATER PIPE PLAIN PIPE
1 rm
Per RM
12

STEEL WOODEN TRUSSES
1 no
Per NO
13

GLASS PANNELS
Sqm
Per sqm
14

FIXING OF GLASS PANELS OR CLEANING
No
Per NO


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USEFUL INFORMATIONS FOR CIVIL SITE ENGINEERS


QUANTITY OF CEMENT , SAND REQUIRED FOR DIFFERENT SPECIFICATIONS OF CEMENT PLASTER AND CEMENT POINTING FOR 10 SQUARE METRES

S.NO
DESCRIPTION OF WORK
CEMENT
SAND
CUB.M
BAGS
CUB.M
1
2
3.
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

1.25 cm thick cement plaster (1:6)
2.50 cm thick cement plaster (1:6)
6 mm thick cement plaster (1:5)
1.25 cm thick cement plaster (1:5)
2.50 cm thick cement plaster (1:5)
6 mm thick cement plaster (1:4)
1.25 cm thick cement plaster (1:4)
2.50 cm thick cement plaster (1:4)
6 mm thick cement plaster ( 1:3)
1.25 mm thick cement plaster (1:3)
2.50 cm thick cement plaster (1:3)
Cement pointing flush (1:2)
Cement pointing deep (1:2)
Cement pointing (flush,rule pointing)
Deep or projecting pointing (1:3)

0.021
0.430
0.012
0.025
0.055
0.015
0.300
0.600
0.180
0.038
0.075
0.017
0.027
---
---
0.72
1.27
0.35
0.74
1.47
0.42
0.88
1.76
0.53
1.12
2.20
0.50
0.80
0.31
0.41
0.125
0.258
0.600
0.125
0.250
0.058
0.120
0.240
0.540
0.114
0.225
0.035
0.550
---
---


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