### ROAD SIGNS AND ITS FULL DETAILS

Road signs or traffic signs are the devices mounted on road side they are fixed or portable devices which specify information either by word or signals. Traffic signs are most used cheapest traffic control devices.
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### WHAT IS PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE AND CLASSIFICATIONS OF PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE

PRE- STRESSED CONCRETE

Normal concrete structure have high compressive strength and very low tension strength .in order to withdraw the weakness of concrete in tension pre-tensioning technique is used .pre-stressed concrete it mean the intentional creation of permanent compressive stresses in a structure for the purpose of improving its behavior and strength for many service situations.

CLASSIFICATION OF PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE

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### HOW TO CALCULATE RENT OF BUILDING

As a civil engineer compulsory we want to know how to calculate rent of building like  residential commercial  etc .so in this topic i will share some examples for how to calculate the annual rent and monthly rent of buildings.

EXAMPLE 1

CALCULATE THE ANNUAL RENT OF BUILDING WITH THE FOLLOWING DATA

Cost of land          =   RS . 30000
Cost of building    =  RS. 900000
Estimated life       =   60 years.
Return expect      =   5 % of land and 6% on building.

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### TYPES OF ESTIMATES

ESTIMATE

Estimate is the defined as the process of calculating the quantities and cost of various items of works. it  depends on the plan section and elevation

TYPES OF ESTIMATES

1.Approximate estimate
2.Detailed estimate
3.Revised estimate
4.Supplementary estimate
5.Sub estimate
6.Annual maintenance estimate  or repair estimate
7. Complete estimate

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### MEASUREMENTS OF MATERIALS BASED ON IS 1200 REVISED

MEASUREMENTS OF MATERIALS BASED ON IS 1200 REVISED

 SI NO PARTICULAR OF ITEM UNIT OF MEASUREMENT UNIT OF PAYMENT 1 EARTH WORK Cum Cum Cum Per cum Per cum Per cum 1.earth work in excavation 2.earthwork in filling in foundation trenches 3.earth work in filling in plinth 2 CONCRETE Cum Cum Cum Cum Cum Cum Cum Per cum Per cum Per cum Per cum Per cum Per cum Per cum 1.lime concrete in foundation 2.cement concrete in litels 3.rcc in slab 4 c c or rcc chujja,sunshade 5.lc in roof terracing 6.cement concrete bed 7.rcc sunshade 3 DAMP PROOF COURCE DPC Sqm Per sqm Thickness should be mentioned 4 BRICKWORK Cum Cum Cum Sqm Cum Cum Per cum Per cum Per cum Per cum Per sqm Per cum Per cum 1.brickwork in foundation 2.brick work in plith 3.brick work in super structure 4.thin partition walls 5.brick work in arches 6.reinforced brick work 5 STONE WORK Cum Per cum Stone masonry 6 WOOD WORK Cum Sqm Numbers Per cum Per sqm Per number 1.door sand windows frames Or chowkhats rafters beams 2.shutters of doors and windows 3.doors and windows fittings 7. STEEL WORK Quintal Quintal Quintal Quintal Quintal Sqm Per Quintal Per Quintal Per Quintal Per Quintal Per Quintal Per sqm 1.steel reinforcement bars etc in rcc and rb work quintal 2.bending binding of steel reinforcement 3.rivets bolts nuts ancjor bolts,lewis bolts,holding down bolts 4.iron hold fasts 5.iron railing 6.iron grills 8 ROOFING Cum Sqm Sqm Sqm Per Cum Per sqm Per sqm Per sqm 1.rcc and rb slab roof 2.lc roof over and inclusive of tiles or brick or stone slab etc 3.centering ans shuttering form work 4.ac sheet roofing 9 PLASTERING POINTS AND FINISHING Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Sqm Per sqm Per sqm Per sqm Per sqm Per sqm 1.plastering cement or lime mortar 2.pointing 3.white washing colour washing cement wash 4.distempering 5.painting varnishing 10 FLOORING Sqm Sqm Sqm Per sqm Per sqm Per sqm 1.25 mm cement concrete over 75 mm lime concrete floor 2.25mm or 40 cc floor 3.doors and window sills 11 RAIN WATER PIPE PLAIN PIPE 1 rm Per RM 12 STEEL WOODEN TRUSSES 1 no Per NO 13 GLASS PANNELS Sqm Per sqm 14 FIXING OF GLASS PANELS OR CLEANING No Per NO

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### USEFUL INFORMATIONS FOR CIVIL SITE ENGINEERS

QUANTITY OF CEMENT , SAND REQUIRED FOR DIFFERENT SPECIFICATIONS OF CEMENT PLASTER AND CEMENT POINTING FOR 10 SQUARE METRES

 S.NO DESCRIPTION OF WORK CEMENT SAND CUB.M BAGS CUB.M 1 2 3. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1.25 cm thick cement plaster (1:6) 2.50 cm thick cement plaster (1:6) 6 mm thick cement plaster (1:5) 1.25 cm thick cement plaster (1:5) 2.50 cm thick cement plaster (1:5) 6 mm thick cement plaster (1:4) 1.25 cm thick cement plaster (1:4) 2.50 cm thick cement plaster (1:4) 6 mm thick cement plaster ( 1:3) 1.25 mm thick cement plaster (1:3) 2.50 cm thick cement plaster (1:3) Cement pointing flush (1:2) Cement pointing deep (1:2) Cement pointing (flush,rule pointing) Deep or projecting pointing (1:3) 0.021 0.430 0.012 0.025 0.055 0.015 0.300 0.600 0.180 0.038 0.075 0.017 0.027 --- --- 0.72 1.27 0.35 0.74 1.47 0.42 0.88 1.76 0.53 1.12 2.20 0.50 0.80 0.31 0.41 0.125 0.258 0.600 0.125 0.250 0.058 0.120 0.240 0.540 0.114 0.225 0.035 0.550 --- ---

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