TYPES OF BRIDGES





What is the bridge?

Bridge is the structure provide passage over on obstacle without closing of the way. The passage may be a road , railway pedestrian etc

TYPES OF BRIDGES

1.timber bridges
2.Masontry bridges
3.Rcc bridges
4.Steel bridges

TIMBER BRIDGES

Timber bridges are classified as temporary bridges. These bridges are very common and are suitable for hill, because they can be constructed with local material and labour very quickly and economically, the cantilever and suspension timber bridges are explained below.

TIMBER CANTILEVER BRIDGE



Timber cantilever bridges are suitable for light traffic the construction of these bridges is very simple layers of timber logs are embedded in the side banks. Another layer of timber logs projecting between 2 to 3 m from the lower layer is laid on it.in this way layer over layers are laid with projections from the bottom laters till 5 to 7 m gap is left in the middle. Road bearers are laid over this gap and the bridge is completed by leveling the surface of earth and stone ballast and the top is giver a smooth finish .

[READ ALSO--TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS]

TIMBER SUSPENSION BRIDGE



In hilly areas for crossing small valley of steam timber suspension bridge. It consists of cables or ropes which bears the load of the roadway through suspenders. The cables are secured anchored to the banks

MASONRY BRIDGE


The super structure of masonry bridges consists of masonry arch over which the roadway is constructed .this arch rests on piers and abutments .the arches may be semi circular semi elliptical parabolic and multi centered types masonry arch bridges are suitable for small span bridges.


RCC BRIDGES

Rcc bridges are rigid ,durable ,economical and easy to construct . The various types of rcc bridges are

1.slab bridges
2,rigid bridges
3.rcc arch bridges

SLAB BRIDGES



This is the simplest type of rcc bridge and easy to construct .this consists of a slab of uniform thickness laid on two abutments .

TEE BEAM AND SLAB BRIDGES



This type of bridge consists of a concrete slab supported on rectangular beam. Here the beams and slabs are cast monolithically and the supported on abutments or piers ,these types of bridges are suitable for spans up to 20 m .these bridges are commonly used for road bridges of canals and railway lines.

RIGID FRAME BRIDGES



In this types of bridges the deck slab is made monolithic with the abutments. The portal frame has stability has stability against lateral forces such as wind and earthquake .these bridges are suitable for spans upto 20m.

RCC ARCH BRIDGES

These bridges are pleasing in appearance and can be economically used upto span of about 200m. Some of the types of rcc arch bridges are explained below.

FILLED SPANDREL ARCH BRIDGE



This consists of a desk slab supported by an arch rib. The space between the arch and the deck slab is filled with earth .

OPEN SPANDREL RIBBED ARCH BRIDGES


In these type of bridges the deck slab is supported on the columns which are in turn supported on arch rib.

BOW STRING GIRDER BRIDGE


This type of bridge consists of an arch rib from which the deck slab is hung by mean of vertically members called suspenders. The horizontal thrust is resisted by ties and the vertical reaction by suspenders and the bow string girder because of the resemblance of the arch rib with above and the tie beam with a string girder because of the resemblance of the arch rib with above and the tie beam with a strong bow string arches are economical .when sufficient headroom is required under a bridge . This types of bridges is suitable for spans of 30m to 45m.

STEEL BRIDGES

Steel bridges are constructed to carry a highway railway track for support of water pipes .oil pipes. These bridges are classified into three types

1.      Plate girder bridges
2.      Steel truss bridges
3.      Steel arch bridges

PLATE GIRDER BRIDGES

A plate girder is a built up beam to carry heavier load over longer spans. Box girder have exceptional torsional rigidity and better transverse load distribution .these bridges can be used for urban highway structure like flyovers. Generally girder bridges are used for simply supported spans less than 50m and for continuous span upto 26m.


STEEL TRUSS BRIDGES

Steel truss bridges are suitable for long railway bridges or for combined road radio bridges they can be used for spans up to 375m.

STEEL ARCH BRIDGES

These consists of trusses or girders used in the form of curved beams called arch ribs. They may be fixed or hinged steel arch bridges and are generally adopted for spans up to 250 m.

BOW STRING GIRDER TYPE BRIDGES

The string girder type bridge derives its name from its shape .the arch rib and the tie respectively resemble bow and string,. The flooring of bridges rests on ties and the load is transmitted to the arch rib through suspenders. Suitable bracing may also be provided in case of steel bow string girders.

CABLE STAYED BRIDGES


Cable stayed bridges  may look similar to suspensions bridges both have roadway that hang from cables and both have towers but the cables are connected to the towers .in suspension bridges the cables ridge freely across the towers transmitted the load to the anchorages at either end in cable stayed bridges. The cable are attached to the lowers. Which alone bear the load. The cables can be attached to the roadway in a variety of ways. In a radial pattern cables extend from several points on the road to a  single point at the top of the tower in a parallel pattern cable are attached at different height along the tower. Running parallel to one other.

ALSO READ
TYPES OF FOUNDATION AND ITS DETAILS
TYPES OF CEMENT OR CLASSIFICATION OF CEMENT
INGREDIENTS OF CEMENT AND ITS FUNCTIONS
CLASSIFICATION OF CONCRETE ADMIXTURES

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