EQUIPMENT USED FOR CHAIN SURVEYING AND ITS USES

EQUIPMENT USED FOR CHAIN SURVEYING AND ITS USES

There are following equipment are used in chain surveying


1.metric chain
2.arrows
3.metallic tape
4.ranging rods
5.offset rods
6.clinometer
7.cross staff
8.prismatic tape
9.wooden pegs
10.mallet
11.field book

 1. METRIC CHAIN

Metric chain is two types 20m chain and 30 m chain .20 m chain have 100 links and 30 m chain have 150 links .each links 20 cm length. Every 5 mts  tallies are connected .tallies shapes are changed depends upon every 5m length.


2. ARROWS

Arrows are is used to counting the number of chains in chaining. Arrows are made steel wires of diameter 4mm and length is 400mm. One end of the arrow is bent up diameter of 50 mm and other end is pointed.

3. METALLIC TAPE

Metallic tape is made of steel ribbon  iron width 6mm to 16 mm .in tape measurements are foot ,inches, centimeter and meters are mentioned.

4. RANGING RODS

Ranging rods are used to mention the stations. Ranging rods are made both wood and metal. Nowadays mostly ranging rods are made metallic steel. Length of ranging rods is 2m and 3m. Ranging rods painted both white and red or black length of 20 cm. Because rods can be properly sighted long distance and bad weather conditions.

5. OFFSET RODS

Offset rods are similar to ranging rods. They are 2m and 3m length. Painted 20 m alternatively white and black or red. Additionally open rings provided top to pushing or pulling the chain
6. CROSS STAFF

Cross staff is the simple instrument used to setting out the right angle. They are broadly classified into three types .1. Open cross staff, 2. French cross staff, 3.adjustable cross staff

7. PRISMATIC COMPASS

Prismatic compass is used to reading the magnetic bearing .instrument is 2 to 6 inch in diameter and placed on stand, ring is made of in aluminum.

8. WOODEN PEGS

Pegs are used when permanent marking points required .pegs are usually made in wood. Most of the times branches of the tree properly shaped into pegs. Normally length of the pegs from 40 cm to 60 cm depends upon the soil condition have to be driver. Pegs are vertically inserted into earth and the top should be properly visible.

9. MALLETS

Mallets are used to driver the pegs and wooden pegs into earth. Because some hard soil surface mallet is must to insert the pegs into soil.

10. FIELD BOOK


During surveying all the observations and measurements are taken into the standard field book. The field book is 20cmx12cm.they are two types single line and double line books.

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