### USEFUL METRIC MEASUREMENTS AND FPS EQUIVALENT FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS

METRIC  MEASUREMENTS AND FPS EQUIVALENT
 LENGTH 1 inch (in)     =2.54 cm 1 foot (ft)     =30.48 cm 1 yard (yd)   =0.9144 m 1 chain         =20.1168 m 1 furlong      =0.201168 km 1 mile           =1.6093 km 1 cm    = 0.393701 in 1 cm    =3.28084 ft 1 m      =1.09361 yd 1 km    =49.7097 chain 1km     =4.97097 furlongs 1 km    =0.621371 mile AREA 1 in2       =  6.4516 cm2 1 ft2       =  0.0929 m2 1 yd2      = 0.8361 m2 1 acre  = 0.404686 hectare 1 sq.mile = 2.5899 km2 1 cm2        =  0.155 in 2 1 cm2         = 10.7639 ft2 1 m2            = 1.19599 yd2 1 hectare = 2.4710 acres 1 km2           = 0.3861 sq.mile VOLUME AND CAPACITY 1 in3    =  16.3871 cm3 1 ft3    =  0.0283 m3 1 yd3  = 0.76455m3 1 Imp.gallon  =  4.54596 litres 1 U.S gallon   = 3.7853 litres 1 cm3  =  0.06102 in3 1 m3      =  35.3147 ft3 1m3       =  1.30795 yd3 1 litre  =  0.21997 Imp.gallon 1 litre  = 0.26417 U.S gallon MASS 1 ib (pound)  = 0.453592 kg 1 cwt              = 50.8023 kg 1 ton              = 1.01605 tonne 1 kg        =   2.20462 ib 1 tonne  = 19.684 cwt 1 tonne  = 0.9842 ton MASS PER UNIT LENGTH 1 ib/in   =  17.8580 kg/m 1 ib/ft   = 1.48816 kg/m 1 ib/yd = 0.496055 kg/m 1 kg     = 1 tonne/km             = 2.0159 ib/yd 1 kg/m  =  0.05599 ib/in 1 kg/m  = 0.67196 ib/ft DENSITY 1 IB/M3  =  27.6799 gm/cm3 1 ib/ft3   = 16.0185 kg/cm3 1 ton/yd3  =  1.3289 gm/cm3 1 gm/cm3  = 1000kg/m3 1 gmcm3    =  62.4280 ib/ft3 1gm/cm3  =  0.75248 ton/yd3 WEIGHT AND MEASURES 1 gm    =  15.432 grain 1 hectogram  =  3.527 oz 1 litre   =  1.7598 pint 1 dece litre  =  2.2 gallons 1 hectolitre  = 22 gallon 1 grain   =  0.0641 gm 1oz         =  28.35 gm 1 stone   = 6.35 kg 1 quarter =12.70 kg 1 pint       = 0.568 litres 1 gallon    = 4.5459 litres EQUIVALENTS 10 mm                =1 cm 10 cm                 =1 decimetre 10 decimetres   =1 metre 10 metres           =1 decameters 10 decametres   =1 hectometre 10 hectometres =1 km 1 ton              =20 cwt 1 quintal       =  100 kg 1 tonne         = 0.9842 british ton                        = 1000 kg 1 pound        =  0.453 kg 1 cwt              = 112 ib 1 kg                 = 1.072 seer 1 metric tons = 26.792 mounds 1 acre        =100 sq.m 100 acres  = 1 hectare 1 myriagram  = 10 kg 1 cwt   =  113 lbs 1perch  = 30 ¼ sq. yt 1 rood  = 40 perches 1 sq.mile =640 acre 1 seer   =  0.933 kg 1 maund = 37.32 kg One bag cement  = 50kg 2 bags   = 1 quintal 20 bags  = 10 quintal

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### TYPES OF BRIDGES

What is the bridge?

Bridge is the structure provide passage over on obstacle without closing of the way. The passage may be a road , railway pedestrian etc

TYPES OF BRIDGES

1.timber bridges
2.Masontry bridges
3.Rcc bridges
4.Steel bridges

TIMBER BRIDGES

Timber bridges are classified as temporary bridges. These bridges are very common and are suitable for hill, because they can be constructed with local material and labour very quickly and economically, the cantilever and suspension timber bridges are explained below.

TIMBER CANTILEVER BRIDGE

Timber cantilever bridges are suitable for light traffic the construction of these bridges is very simple layers of timber logs are embedded in the side banks. Another layer of timber logs projecting between 2 to 3 m from the lower layer is laid on it.in this way layer over layers are laid with projections from the bottom laters till 5 to 7 m gap is left in the middle. Road bearers are laid over this gap and the bridge is completed by leveling the surface of earth and stone ballast and the top is giver a smooth finish .

TIMBER SUSPENSION BRIDGE

In hilly areas for crossing small valley of steam timber suspension bridge. It consists of cables or ropes which bears the load of the roadway through suspenders. The cables are secured anchored to the banks

MASONRY BRIDGE

The super structure of masonry bridges consists of masonry arch over which the roadway is constructed .this arch rests on piers and abutments .the arches may be semi circular semi elliptical parabolic and multi centered types masonry arch bridges are suitable for small span bridges.

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### TYPES OF FOUNDATION AND ITS DETAILS

TYPES OF FOUNDATION AND ITS DETAILS

Foundation is the lowest part of the structure .it is used to transmit the load from structure to hard strata of the soil.
The foundation is classified into two types
1.shallow foundation
2.deep foundation

SHALLOW FOUNDATION

When the load is transferred through the shear resistance of the bearing stratum and the depth not more than 3m is called shallow foundation
The depth of the foundation less than or equal to the width of the foundation is also called shallow foundation.

DEEP FOUNDATION

Depth of foundation is more than 3m is called deep foundation. the load is transferred to the load bearing stratum by mean of friction or end bearings. Heavy load buildings are used deep foundation for like multi storied buildings, dams , docks etc.

DETAILS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS
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### EQUIPMENT USED FOR CHAIN SURVEYING AND ITS USES

EQUIPMENT USED FOR CHAIN SURVEYING AND ITS USES

There are following equipment are used in chain surveying

1.metric chain
2.arrows
3.metallic tape
4.ranging rods
5.offset rods
6.clinometer
7.cross staff
8.prismatic tape
9.wooden pegs
10.mallet
11.field book

1. METRIC CHAIN

Metric chain is two types 20m chain and 30 m chain .20 m chain have 100 links and 30 m chain have 150 links .each links 20 cm length. Every 5 mts  tallies are connected .tallies shapes are changed depends upon every 5m length.

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