SHORT DEFINITIONS IN SURVEYING PART-1




1.Define Surveying
Surveying Is The Art. To Making Horizontal Measurements To Ascertain Relative Position Of Different Objects On The Surface Of The Earth.

2. Principle Of Surveying
To  Work From The Whole To  The Part
To Locate The New Station By   Atleast  Two Process

3.Primary Classification Of Surveying
  1.Geodetic Surveying
  2.Plane Surveying


4.What Is Geodetic Surveying?
Geodetic Surveying Is Also Called Trigonometrically Surveying In Geodetic Surveying Curvature Of The Earth Is Considered It Deal Long Distance And Big Area. The Joining Line In Earth Is Curved And Form Arc Of A Two Point Great Circle.

5.What Is Plane Surveying?
Plane Surveying Deals Small Area And Short Distances The Curvature Is The Earth Is Not Considered. Also The Line Connected In Two Points In The Earth Surface Is Taken As A Straight Line. Accuracy Of The Plane Surveying Is Low Compared Geodetic Surveying.

6. Types Of Surveys Based On Types Of Instruments Used
     1.Chain Survey
     2.Compass Survey
     3.Theodolite Survey
     4.Plane Table Survey
     5.Tachometric Survey
     6.Photographic Survey
     7.Aerial Survey

7. Classification Of Scales
     Plain Scale
     Diagonal Scale
    Comparative Scale
    Vernier Scale

8. Well Conditioned Triangle
Well Conditioned Triangle Is Defined As There Is No Include Angle Is Less Than 30 And Greater Than 120 .Equilateral Triangle Is The Best Conditioned Triangle

9.Terminology In Chain Surveying
    Survey Station
    Base Line
    Chain Line
    Tie Line
    Offsets

9.Types Of Chains Used In Surveying
    Metric Chain
   Non Metric Chain
   Gunter’s Chain
   Engineers Chain
   Revenue Chain

10.Classificationns Of Taps
   Cloth Or Linear Tape
   Metallic Tape
   Steel Tape

11.Instruments Used In Setting Out Right Angles
    Cross Staff
   Optical Square
   Prism Square

12.Types Of Cross Staffs
   Open Cross Staff
   French Cross Staff
  Adjustable Cross Staff

13.Accessories Used For Linear Measurements
   Ranging Rods
  Arrows
  Pegs
  Offset Rods
  Ranging Poles
  Plumb Bob

14.Define Ranging
Ranging Is Defined As The Process Of Establishing Intermediate Points On A Straight Alignment Between Two And Station Is Known As Ranging.

15.Types Of Ranging
   Direct Ranging
   Indirect Ranging

16 Define Indirect Ranging
Direct Ranging Is The Process In Which The Ranging Rods Are Placed On A Straight Line By Direct Observation From End Station .Direct Ranging Is Possible Only When The Inter Stations Are Inter Visible.

17.Define Indirect Ranging Or Reciprocal Ranging
Indirect Ranging Is Defined As When  The Inter station Are Not Visible Due To Obstacles Of High Ground Or Hill Integration Or Long Distance .That Situation Indirect Ranging Is Prepared Indirect Ranging Also Called Reciprocal Ranging.

18.Why Conventional Signs Are Used?
The Objects On The Ground Not Represent By Name But By Some Sign Which Can Be Understood Easily By Every One Such Sigh Of Representing Objects Are Called Conventional Signs.

19.Principle Of Chain Surveying
The Principle Of Chain Surveying Is Based On Triangulation Which Is To Divide The Area Into A Network Of Triangle .Which Should Be Well Conditioned The Sides Are The Triangle Are Measured Direct On The Field By Chain Or Tape And No Angular Measurements Are Made.

20.Define True Meridian
The Line Passing Through The Geographical North Pole Or South Pole And Any Point On The Surface Of The Earth Is Known As The True Meridian Or Geographical Meridian.


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ALSO READ
SHORT DEFINITIONS IN SURVEYING PART-2
SHORT DEFINITIONS IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT PART-2


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