PROCESS INVOLVED IN MANUFACTURING OF CONCRETE




Good quality of concrete depends upon homogeneous mixture of cement , coarse aggregate ,fine aggregate with water .each ingredients  of concrete have different function. the coarse aggregate act as a filter. fine aggregate fill up the voids between coarse aggregate .the cement conjunction with water act as a binding material. The mobility of the mixture is aided by the cement paste fines , nowadays increasingly use of the admixture .

Quality of concrete based on each process of manufacturing of concrete. Ratio of proportioning of ingredients of concrete is  essence of the mix design .the objective of the quality control is to supervising the batch stage of manufacturing process.

PROCESS INVOLVED IN MANUFACTURING OF CONCRETE

1.     1. Batching or measurement of materials
2.      2.Mixing’
3.      3.Transportation
4.      4.Placing
5.      5.Compacting
6.     6. Curing

BATCHING OF MATERIALS

A good quality of concrete is based proper accurate quantity  of ingredients should be used. the cement ,aggregates and water should be used +3 percent of batching quantity and the admixture by the +5 percent of batching quantity. there are two types of batching are used .the volume batch and the weight batch. The most important work weight batching is used .the factor affecting the choice of batching method are the size of job required production rete, and required standards of batching performance

VOLUME BATCHING

Volume batch is recommended only for the small works only .the amount of concrete ingredients are measured by loose volume using standard box known as volume gauge box. the box is made in wood or the Metal .the amount of solid granular material in a cubic meter will be an indefinite quantity as an example volume of moist sand in a loose condition weights much less than the same volume of dry compacted sand. Cement is always measured by weight irrespective the methods of batching .cement is always measured by weight .the volume of a bag of cement is(50 kg) is 0.035 m3

WEIGHT BATCHING

For all biggest works weight batching is used. Different types of weight batches are used. For small works manually weight batch is done. All the ingredients are measured manually by weight. The weight may be done in ordinary weight platform machine. For large works buckets are used. The bucket is discharge the materials directly into the mixture machine. For automatic batching plants ranging from 
small to large operated by manually or electrically.

MIXING

The next process is mixing .strength of the concrete is based on the mixing of ingredients. Homogeneous mixing process is mix the cement to aggregates correctly. All the aggregate particles should have a coat of cement paste and all the ingredients of the concrete should blend into a uniform mass .the mixing is done either by hand or machine

HAND MIXING

Hand mixing is done by only small works .batched quantity of fine aggregate and cement is spread over the impervious floor then mix with hand using hand mixing equipment’s .then the coarse aggregate is added to the mix .all the three materials are mixed through .water is added finally and mix one more time until than when color is achieved

MACHINE MIXING

For quality and large works machine mix is done. Machine mixing is broadly classified as patch mixing and continuous mixing.in small and medium works patch mixer is used. batches are batch with time interval .whereas continuous mixer is produce the concrete until the plant is working. continuous mixer is used for large size works. Ex dams

TRANSPORTATION OF CONCRETE

The concrete can be transmitted either by normally of mechanically. For small works concrete are transmitted manually by using pans, wheel carts. for large and massive works the concrete is transported by buckets or by pumps which are operated mechanically .
Chutes are used to transport the concrete to lower lever
A barrow lift attached to scaffolding is used to hoist concrete to upper floors

PLACING OF CONCRETE


Placing of concrete is the process of depositing the concrete in its required position. concrete should be placed in position in a proper manner as early as possible within the initial setting time of the cement. some of the time admixture is used to increasing the initial setting time.

COMPACTION OF CONCRETE

Compaction is the process or removal of air voids from the concrete. because air voids in concrete make the vacuum it decrease the concrete strength .compaction may be done manually or mechanically .in manual process damping rods are used .in mechanical process vibrators are used .small size of works manual compaction process is done. Large size works vibrators are used. vibrators are classified into three types, internal vibrators ,external vibrators and table vibrators

CURING OF CONCRETE


The concrete surface are maintain moisture condition in certain period after the placing of concrete is done is called curing.so as to increase the concrete strength .it consists of control of temperature and of the moisture movement from and into the concrete. The period of curing is depends on the types of work and nature of works. For ordinary Portland cement the period of curing time is from 7 days to 14 days. if rapid cement is used the curing time is reduced 

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ALSO READ-----SLUMP TEST TO FIND OUT THE WORKABILITY OF CONCRETE

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