SHORT DEFINITIONS IN SURVEYING PART-1




1.Define Surveying
Surveying Is The Art. To Making Horizontal Measurements To Ascertain Relative Position Of Different Objects On The Surface Of The Earth.

2. Principle Of Surveying
To  Work From The Whole To  The Part
To Locate The New Station By   Atleast  Two Process

3.Primary Classification Of Surveying
  1.Geodetic Surveying
  2.Plane Surveying

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SHORT DEFINITIONS IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT PART-1



IN THIS PAGE I SHARE SOME SHORT DEFINITIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS EQUIPMENT CONSTRUCTION TECHNICS CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY USED TERMS IN CONSTRUCTION  FIELD ETC

1.What is concrete?
Concrete is the binding material. made to mixture of cement or lime with fine aggregate  and coarse aggregate .concrete have high compressive strength

2.Define admixture?
Admixture is the material other than cement fine aggregate coarse aggregate added to the concrete for improve the property of concrete

3.What are the factor affecting workability of concrete?
 There are the factors affecting the workability of concrete is Size of aggregates ,shape of aggregates water content, mix proportion and grading of aggregate .

Ordinary Portland cement
Quick setting cement
Rapid hardening cement
High alumina cement
High strength cement
Acid resisting cement
Color cement
Pozzolana cement
Super sulphate cement
White cement.

5.What are the different methods of mix design?
ACI method
British DOE method
IS code method

6.Define segregation
Segregation is the separation of concrete ingredients like   coarse aggregate fine aggregate  and cement so the concrete have no strength.

7.Define bleeding
Bleeding is the process of separation of cement  from concrete .so the concrete losses there strength

8.purpose  of slumptest
Slump test is used to find out the workability of concrete. This is the empirical method the slump cone size is bottom diameter 20 cm, top diameter 10 cm, height 30 cm

9.chemical composition of ordinary Portland cement
Cao-60 to 65 %
SiO 2 20-25%
AL2O3 4-8%
Fe2O3-24%
MgO-1-3%

10. what are the different types of concrete mixes?
Nominal mix
Standard mixes
Design mixes
11.Define mix design
Mix design is the process of selection of suitable ingredients for the concrete and to determine the relative proportion with the object of producing concrete of certain minimum strength and durability as economy as possible.

12.what is the grade of cement and its types
Grade of cement is based of crushing strength of cement mortar cube of size 7.5 cm cured for 28days
They are classified into there types .grate 33,grade 43,grade 53

13.What is curing
Curing is the process of maintain the cement constructed place in wet condition .to achieve the compressive strength of cement constructed place and reduce the cracks

14.what are methods of curing the concrete
Water curing, membrane curing application of heat, miscellaneous

Accelerators
Retarders
Gas forming agents
Workability agents
Plasticizers
Super plasticize
Air entering agent

16.What is the workability of concrete?
Workability is defined as the amount of work required to place concrete and to compact it thoroughly. workability of concrete is increase with increasing of water content to concrete but it causes to reduce the strength of concrete.

17.define masonry
Masonry is the construction structure it made  either stone masonry or brick masonry .masonry is used to construct buildings dams columns etc.

18.types of masonry
Bricks masonry
Stone masonry
Block masonry

19.classification of stone masonry
Random rubble masonry
Squared rubble masonry
Coursed rubble masonry
Ashlar masonry

20.types of bonds used in brick masonry
English bond
Flemish bond

21.what is English bond

The brick in the facing are laid in alternate courses of headers and stretchers .the header course is commenced with a queen header followed by a queen closer and continued with successive headers the stretcher coursed are formed by stretchers having a minimum lap of one quarter their length over the header.
          
PAGE --1  2  3  4  5

SHORT DEFINITIONS IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL  AND EQUIPMENT PART-2
SHORT DEFINITIONS IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL  AND EQUIPMENT PART-3
SHORT DEFINITIONS IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL  AND EQUIPMENT PART-4
SHORT DEFINITIONS IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL  AND EQUIPMENT PART-5

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TYPES OF CEMENTS OR CLASSIFICATION OF CEMENTS



TYPES OF CEMENTS 

cement is the binding material. this is the main ingredient in construction field.the cement is classified into following types.

1.rapid hardening cement
2.low head cement
3.surlfate resisting cement
4.white cement
5.portland pozzolana  cement
6.colured cement
7.hiigh alumina cement
8.expansion cement

1.RAPID HARDENING CEMENT

Rapid hardening cement is similar to ordinary Portland cement but it finer than ordinary Portland cement .it give early strength compared than ordinary Portland cement. Strength of this cement in 3 days is equal to 7 days strength in opc.
Main advantage of this cement is where we want to remove the form work early.

2.LOW HEAT CEMENT

Low heat cement have high C2S and low C3S ,C3A content compared to opc  .initial setting  time of low heat cement is higher than opc. This cement is used in high volume concrete works like construction of dams etc.

3.SULFATE RESISTING CEMENT 

This cement has low C3A  content compared to opc. This content have high resisting capability .this cement is used to construction of river works and foundation where soil have high sulfate content.

4.WHITE CEMENT

White cement is the type of ordinary Portland cement but its  color is pure white. Composition and compressive strength of cement is same as ordinary Portland cement. Iron oxide content is reduced  in opc to obtain pure white colour.raw materials are clay and line power. This cement is used in aesthetic works like swimming pools, exterior architecture works etc.

5.COLORED CEMENT 

This cement is like ordinary Portland cement by it has various colors. Production of colored cement by adding various colors. Production of colored cement by adding  5-10 % mineral pigments with opc during the grinding grinding process .for chlorium oxide gives green color, gobalt produce blue color  manganese dioxide gives black of brown colored cement. Colored cement are used various aesthetic works for interior and exterior works . Most of the times colored cement is used in tiles laying process in flooring.

6.HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT

This cement is manufactured by adding bauxite and lime in specified temperature , this cement also called calcium aluminum cement .it have high strength it achieved maximum strength with in 24 hours adding water .it is used in water construction works.

7.EXPANSION CEMENT

This cement expand during and after construction. its does not shrink this property is achieved by adding some components like sulpho aluminates and stabilizing agent to ordinary cement this cement is mainly used in fill the cracks and grouting works.

8.QUICK SETTING CEMENT

Quick setting cement is used in various works. When we want accelerate the construction time for like under water construction. this cement is manufactured adding small percentage of aluminum sulphate as an accelerator and reducing gypsum content with fine grinding.

ALSO READ-----INGREDIENTS OF CEMENT AND ITS FUNCTIONS

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PROCESS INVOLVED IN MANUFACTURING OF CONCRETE




Good quality of concrete depends upon homogeneous mixture of cement , coarse aggregate ,fine aggregate with water .each ingredients  of concrete have different function. the coarse aggregate act as a filter. fine aggregate fill up the voids between coarse aggregate .the cement conjunction with water act as a binding material. The mobility of the mixture is aided by the cement paste fines , nowadays increasingly use of the admixture .

Quality of concrete based on each process of manufacturing of concrete. Ratio of proportioning of ingredients of concrete is  essence of the mix design .the objective of the quality control is to supervising the batch stage of manufacturing process.

PROCESS INVOLVED IN MANUFACTURING OF CONCRETE

1.     1. Batching or measurement of materials
2.      2.Mixing’
3.      3.Transportation
4.      4.Placing
5.      5.Compacting
6.     6. Curing

BATCHING OF MATERIALS

A good quality of concrete is based proper accurate quantity  of ingredients should be used. the cement ,aggregates and water should be used +3 percent of batching quantity and the admixture by the +5 percent of batching quantity. there are two types of batching are used .the volume batch and the weight batch. The most important work weight batching is used .the factor affecting the choice of batching method are the size of job required production rete, and required standards of batching performance

VOLUME BATCHING

Volume batch is recommended only for the small works only .the amount of concrete ingredients are measured by loose volume using standard box known as volume gauge box. the box is made in wood or the Metal .the amount of solid granular material in a cubic meter will be an indefinite quantity as an example volume of moist sand in a loose condition weights much less than the same volume of dry compacted sand. Cement is always measured by weight irrespective the methods of batching .cement is always measured by weight .the volume of a bag of cement is(50 kg) is 0.035 m3

WEIGHT BATCHING

For all biggest works weight batching is used. Different types of weight batches are used. For small works manually weight batch is done. All the ingredients are measured manually by weight. The weight may be done in ordinary weight platform machine. For large works buckets are used. The bucket is discharge the materials directly into the mixture machine. For automatic batching plants ranging from 
small to large operated by manually or electrically.

MIXING

The next process is mixing .strength of the concrete is based on the mixing of ingredients. Homogeneous mixing process is mix the cement to aggregates correctly. All the aggregate particles should have a coat of cement paste and all the ingredients of the concrete should blend into a uniform mass .the mixing is done either by hand or machine

HAND MIXING

Hand mixing is done by only small works .batched quantity of fine aggregate and cement is spread over the impervious floor then mix with hand using hand mixing equipment’s .then the coarse aggregate is added to the mix .all the three materials are mixed through .water is added finally and mix one more time until than when color is achieved

MACHINE MIXING

For quality and large works machine mix is done. Machine mixing is broadly classified as patch mixing and continuous mixing.in small and medium works patch mixer is used. batches are batch with time interval .whereas continuous mixer is produce the concrete until the plant is working. continuous mixer is used for large size works. Ex dams

TRANSPORTATION OF CONCRETE

The concrete can be transmitted either by normally of mechanically. For small works concrete are transmitted manually by using pans, wheel carts. for large and massive works the concrete is transported by buckets or by pumps which are operated mechanically .
Chutes are used to transport the concrete to lower lever
A barrow lift attached to scaffolding is used to hoist concrete to upper floors

PLACING OF CONCRETE


Placing of concrete is the process of depositing the concrete in its required position. concrete should be placed in position in a proper manner as early as possible within the initial setting time of the cement. some of the time admixture is used to increasing the initial setting time.

COMPACTION OF CONCRETE

Compaction is the process or removal of air voids from the concrete. because air voids in concrete make the vacuum it decrease the concrete strength .compaction may be done manually or mechanically .in manual process damping rods are used .in mechanical process vibrators are used .small size of works manual compaction process is done. Large size works vibrators are used. vibrators are classified into three types, internal vibrators ,external vibrators and table vibrators

CURING OF CONCRETE


The concrete surface are maintain moisture condition in certain period after the placing of concrete is done is called curing.so as to increase the concrete strength .it consists of control of temperature and of the moisture movement from and into the concrete. The period of curing is depends on the types of work and nature of works. For ordinary Portland cement the period of curing time is from 7 days to 14 days. if rapid cement is used the curing time is reduced 

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ALSO READ-----SLUMP TEST TO FIND OUT THE WORKABILITY OF CONCRETE

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SLUMP CONE TEST TO FIND OUT THE WORKABILITY OF CONCRETE


Slump test is the simplest workability find out method or consistency  find out method for concrete.Slump method may be done at the construction site or laboratory.Concrete slump test is carried at construction site for each batch because to maintain the uniform quality of concrete for all the batches.This is empirical test measure the workability of concrete.Slump test is the very very low expansive method of finding workability of fresh concrete also its provide the result immediately
Due to this reason slump test is used all over the world to find the workability or consistency of concrete

Slump test is proceed as per procedure mentioned in ASTM C143 united states is 1199 -1959 in india
Slump test is carried in construction field generally to find out the workability of concrete
Many factors like water cement ratio, material quality cement quality, aggregate size and shapes are affected the slump value.In this test maximum aggregate size does not exceed 38 mm

Apparatus required

1 slump cone
2. tamping rod (size 60 mm long 16 mm dia)
3.non porous base plate
4.measuring scale

About slump cone

Slump cone has 30 cm height ,20 cm bottom diameter,10 cm top diameter
Both side handle is provided to lift the cone vertically

Procedure for slump cone test

1.first clean the inner surface of the slump cone and apply the oil
2.place the slump cone on the non porous steel base plate
3.take the sample and fill with in the slump cone with four layer
4.each layer have equal height and tamp each layer with 25 strokes with the use of tamping rod
5.remove the excess concrete from the top surface and level the surface with trowel
6.clean cement leaked outer surface of the slump cone
7.raising the mold slowly and carefully immediately in vertical direction
8.measure the slump value as difference between the slump height to the tested concrete specimen height that is the slump value
9.keep in mind slump testing place carried out free from vibration because it affect the exact slump value

Measurement of slump

The slump value is take in term of mm

Types of slump

The shapes of the slump concrete specimen is varied in three shapes
1. true slump
2.shear slump
3.collapse slump

True slump

True slump is measure in the test slump of the concrete is distance between top of the concrete and top of the slump cone

Shear slump

Shear slump indicate the slump value is not find out and the sample is to be retested

Collapsed slump

Collapsed slump indicate the high workability of concrete or high level wet concrete .it may affect the concrete strength

Recommended slump value for various types of concrete works

s.no
Structures

Slump value
1
Mass concrete works
25-50 mm
2
Deck slab in bridge
30- 75 mm
3
Vibrated concrete
12- 25 mm
4
pavements
20-30 mm
5
Beam and slab
50-100 mm
6
Column retaining wall
75- 150 m

Application of slump test

1.the slump test is used to maintained the uniform quality of concrete in different batches
2 simplest method so its made any place and any time
3.low and high slump value warning to the patch operator to maintain water level

ALSO READ----CLASSIFICATION OF CONCRETE ADMIXTURES 

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CLASSIFICATION OF CONCRETE ADMIXTURES





Admixtures are the construction materials other than water aggregate and cement .that are added to the concrete before or during mixing of concrete. Admixtures are used to improve the properties of concrete the uses of concrete should offer an improvement not economically attainable by adjusting the proportions of cement and aggregates and should not adversely affect any properties of the concrete

very small amount of admixture is added to the concrete. excess amount of admixture can change the properties of concrete



FUNCTION OF ADMIXTURE



1.to accelerate the initial setting time of concrete

2.to retard the initial setting time

3.to improve the strength of concrete

4.to improve the strength of concrete

5.to inhibit the corrosion of concrete

6.to increase the durability of concrete

7.to increase the bond between concrete to the steel

8.to increase chemical residence to the concrete

9.to reduce the segregation in grout mixtures

10 to decrease the weight of concrete

11. to increase bond bw old and new concrete surface

CLASSIFICATION OF ADMIXTURES

1.air entraining agents

2.retarders

3.accelerators

4.water proofers

5.pozzolana

6.pigments

7.Workability agents



1.Air entraining agents

Air entraining agents are used to increase the workability of concrete to improve resistance to weather and action of frost.

2.retarders

Retarders are used to delay the setting time of concrete. Calcium sulphate in the form of gypsum is generally added during the manufacture of cement to retard the setting Time. some other materials which are effectively used to retard the rate of hydration are ammonium chloride, ferrous and ferrous and ferric chlorides

3.accelerators

Accelerators are used to decrease the setting time of concrete without affecting strength of concrete. the most commonly used accelerator is calcium chloride .sodium chloride may used to acceleration of concrete

4.water proofers

Water proofers are used in the form of powder liquid and paste and consists of pore filling materials or water repelling materials they can be chemically active or inactive .alkaline silicates notably silica of soda aluminum and zinc sulphates . aluminium and calcium chlorides are the chief pore filling materials these are all chemically active and hence may accelerate the setting time of the concrete thus making it more impervious at an early age

5.pozzolana

A pozzolana is a silicious materials. which its self don’t have cementititous properties will either be processed or unprocessed and its finally divided form. React in the presence of water with lime normal temperatures to form compounds of low solubility having cementitious properties.

Advantages

Following advantages are achieved to use of the pozzolanas

1.obtain maximum workability with using small amount of water

2.attacks from salt arid sulphates is reduced

3.calcium hydroxide leaching is reduced

4.heat of hydration is reduced

Disadvantages

1.strength development is slowed

2.durability may be decreased

3.shrinkage may be increased

6.pigments

Pigments are the substances are used to produce the coloured cement .the main pigments used in concrete are brown, black ,red, green, blue, and yellow .to produce the colouring effect , the pigment should be ground with cement in a ball mill.

7.Workability agents
Workability agents are used to increase the workability of concrete. Workability and water reducing agents are same .many materials appear to perform all these function

Workability agents some times may be in the form of powder.some times much finer than the cement.

Workability agent chemicals are classified into three types

Organic acid ,lignosulfonates and carbohydrates. Excessive use of workability agents some times may cause shrinkage of concrete

FUNCTIONS
1.Its is used to spreading of cement over the fine aggregates

2.its wets the surface of the aggregates

3.its used to increase the binding properties of concrete

ALSO READ------ PROCESS INVOLVED IN MANUFACTURING OF CONCRETE

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HOW TO CALCULATE WATER TANK SIZE AND CAPACITY

HOW TO CALCULATE WATER TANK SIZE AND CAPACITY



In commercial building usually  the design data of water tank is provided by the design engineer. But most of the time we want to construct residential building. at the time water tank design is required.so the topic we are discussed about water tank design of residential building .

we consider 5 members in this family so the water tank is designed to for this data.

in India per capita  demand=135 liters/day/person
135 liters of water is required for one person per day

Total amount of water is required for 5 members= 5x135
                                                                                       =675 liters
               Unit weight of water                                    =1000 liters/m3
               Assume the depth of water tank               =0.6m
                                                                      675 liters=0.675 m3
              Volume of water tank                                  =0.675 m3
                                                                  L X B X D     =volume (0.675 m3 )
                                                          L X B X 0.6          =0.675
                                                                      LB            =0.675/0.6
                                                                      LB            =1.125
We want any one dimension
                                                                So that L      =2 xB
                                                                     2 B2         =1.125
                                                                    B2             =1.125/2
                                                                    B2             = 0.5625
                                                                    B               =0.75 m
                                                                     L                = 2B
                                                                                       =2 x 0.75
                                                                    L                  = 1.5 m
                                                    Provide free board  =0.2m
RESULT

Size or water tank

Length=1.5m
Breadth=0.75

Depth=0.8 m(0.6m+free board 0.2m)

ALSO READ-----INGREDIENTS OF CEMENTS AND ITS FUNCTIOS

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HOW TO APPROXIMATELY CALCULATE QUANTITY OF STEEL BARS IN BEAMS, COLUMNS AND SLAB WITHOUT BAR BENDING SCHEDULE

HOW TO APPROXIMATELY CALCULATE QUANTITY OF STEEL BARS IN BEAMS, COLUMNS AND SLAB WITHOUT BAR BENDING SCHEDULE



Bar bending schedule is requires to find the exact  quantity of steel for estimation of rate
But we don’t have the bar bending schedule and design data at the site
At the time we take approximate percentage value from the similar constructed project

APPROXIMATE PERCENTAGE OF STEEL IN RCC  ELEMENTS

1 lintel and beams        =1 % to 2 %
2.columns                      =1 %  to 5 %
3 foundation                  =0-.5 % to 0.8 %
4.roof slab                      =0.7 % to 0.8 %

EXAMPLE 1

Calculation of steel bars in beams

Size of beam
Length     = 5m
Breadth   =0.3 m
Depth      =0.45 m
Volume of beam  =5 x 0.3x 0.45
                               =0.675 m3  
Approximate percentage of steel in beam  =2 %
So volume of steel      =(2/100)x0.675
                                      =0.0135 m3
Unit weight of steel   =7850 kg/m3
                                     =0.135 x 7850
                                     =106 kg

EXAMPLE 2

Calculation of steel in column

Size of column
       Height h           =3 m
Lateral dimension = 0.3m x0.3 m
                                 =0.27 m
Percentage of steel in column   =1 % to 5 %
We take 3 % of steel in column
So,                  volume of steel =(3/100) x 0.27
                                                    =0.0081 m3
Unit weight steel         =7850 kg/m3
Weight of steel            =0.0081 x 7850
                                        =63.58 kg

EXAMPLE 3

Calculation of steel in roof slab

Size of roof
     Length L =3m
   Breadth B =3m
      Depth d =0.1 m
Volume of stab =L x B x D
                           =3x 0.3x0.1
                           =0.09
Volume of steel in slab=0.7 % to 0.8 %
We take 0.8 % steel in concrete
Volume of steel       =(0.8/100)x 0.09
                                   =0.00072
Unit weight of steel =7850 kg /m3
                                    =0.00072 x 7850
                                    =5.652 kg
Quantity of steel in slab = 5.652 kg



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HOW TO FIND UNIT WEIGHT OF STEEL BARS

HOW TO FIND WEIGHT OF STEEL BARS




After designing of Rcc elements we know only diameter of bars and numbers of bars
But we don’t know weight of steel bars
Now we are discussed to how find weight of steel bars
Weight of steel bars are required to preparation of estimation

Example 1

Formula ,   weight = d2/162
                              D=diameter of bar in mm
We know the length of bars from the bar bending schedule
For example,   assume length of steel bar = 40 feet (12m)
                                              Diameter of bar =8 mm f
                                                                       W =82/162
                                                                            =0.395 kg/m
Weight of 8 mm  1 meter length bar            =0.395 kg
                                                    So  ,                  =12 x 0.395
                                                                             =4.75 kg
Weight of 8mm f diameter 1 meter length bar =4.95 kg
 The above   process same for all diameters of bars
Below I am provide many diameter bars unit weight
Keep in mind -------length of bar L in meter
                        ------- diameter of bar D in mm


Diameter of bar f in mm
Weight of bar per meter length in kg
6 mm f
0.222 kg
8 mm f
0.395 kg
10 mm f
0.617 kg
12 mm f
0.888 kg
16 mm f
1.580 kg
20 mm f
2.469 kg
22 mm f
2.987 kg


Example 2

How to calculate  weight of 20mm f , 10 meter length bar
For using above table
Weight  of 20 mm diameter bar for 1 meter length =2.467 kg
So                                                                                       =10 x 2.467
                                                                                           = 24.67 kg
Example 3

If the length is in foot then how to calculate weight of steel bar
Formula  , weight =D2 L/533
10mm f bar =0.188 kg/ft
12 mm f bar=0.270 kg/ft
16 mm f bar=0.480 kg/ft
20 mm f bar=0.750 kg/ft
22 mm f bar=1.175 kg/ft


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COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF BRICKS





AIM: -
 compression strength of brick

OBJECT: -

The specimen brick is immersed in water for 24 hours. The frog of the Compressive Strength

APPARATUS:

Bricks,
Oven
Venire Caliper,
Scale, Etc.

FORMULA: -

                                          Max. Load at failure
Compressive Strength = -----------------------------
                                          Loaded Area of brick
         
THEORY: -

Bricks are used in construction of either load bearing walls or in portion walls in case of frame structure. In bad bearing walls total weight from slab and upper floor comes directly through brick and then it is transverse to the foundation. In case the bricks are loaded with compressive nature of force on other hand in case of frame structure bricks are used only for construction of portion walls, layers comes directly on the lower layers or wall. In this case bricks are loaded with compressive nature of force. Hence for safely measures before using the bricks in actual practice
they have to be tested in laboratory for their compressive strength.

PROCEDURE: -

1. Select some brick with uniform shape and size.
2. Measure its all dimensions. (LXBXH)
3. Now fill the frog of the brick with fine sand. And
4. Place the brick on the lower platform of compression testing machine and lower the spindle till the upper motion of ram is offered by a specimen the oil pressure start increasing the pointer engineering start
returning to zero leaving the drug pointer that is maximum reading which can be noted down.

OBSERVATION TABLE

S.NO
L X B X H
AREA
(LXB)
CM2
LOAD(N)
(P)
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH
P/A(N/MM2)
AVERAGE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

























CALCULATION:- -
                                                    Max. Load at failure
          Compressive Strength = -----------------------------
                                                    Loaded Area of brick

RESULT : -



The average compressive strength of new brick sample is found to be ………. Kg/sq.cm.
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