USEFUL METRIC MEASUREMENTS AND FPS EQUIVALENT FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS




METRIC  MEASUREMENTS AND FPS EQUIVALENT

LENGTH

1 inch (in)     =2.54 cm

1 foot (ft)     =30.48 cm

1 yard (yd)   =0.9144 m

1 chain         =20.1168 m

1 furlong      =0.201168 km

1 mile           =1.6093 km
1 cm    = 0.393701 in

1 cm    =3.28084 ft

1 m      =1.09361 yd

1 km    =49.7097 chain

1km     =4.97097 furlongs

1 km    =0.621371 mile

AREA

1 in2       =  6.4516 cm2

1 ft2       =  0.0929 m2

1 yd2      = 0.8361 m2

1 acre  = 0.404686 hectare

1 sq.mile = 2.5899 km2
1 cm2        =  0.155 in 2

1 cm2         = 10.7639 ft2

1 m2            = 1.19599 yd2

1 hectare = 2.4710 acres

1 km2           = 0.3861 sq.mile

VOLUME AND CAPACITY

1 in3    =  16.3871 cm3

1 ft3    =  0.0283 m3

1 yd= 0.76455m3

1 Imp.gallon  =  4.54596 litres

1 U.S gallon   = 3.7853 litres
1 cm3  =  0.06102 in3

1 m3      =  35.3147 ft3

1m3       =  1.30795 yd3

1 litre  =  0.21997 Imp.gallon

1 litre  = 0.26417 U.S gallon

MASS

1 ib (pound)  = 0.453592 kg

1 cwt              = 50.8023 kg

1 ton              = 1.01605 tonne
1 kg        =   2.20462 ib

1 tonne  = 19.684 cwt

1 tonne  = 0.9842 ton

MASS PER UNIT LENGTH

1 ib/in   =  17.8580 kg/m

1 ib/ft   = 1.48816 kg/m

1 ib/yd = 0.496055 kg/m
1 kg     = 1 tonne/km
            = 2.0159 ib/yd

1 kg/m  =  0.05599 ib/in

1 kg/m  = 0.67196 ib/ft

DENSITY

1 IB/M=  27.6799 gm/cm3

1 ib/ft3   = 16.0185 kg/cm3

1 ton/yd=  1.3289 gm/cm3
1 gm/cm= 1000kg/m3

1 gmcm3    =  62.4280 ib/ft3

1gm/cm=  0.75248 ton/yd3

WEIGHT AND MEASURES

1 gm    =  15.432 grain

1 hectogram  =  3.527 oz

1 litre   =  1.7598 pint

1 dece litre  =  2.2 gallons

1 hectolitre  = 22 gallon
1 grain   =  0.0641 gm

1oz         =  28.35 gm

1 stone   = 6.35 kg

1 quarter =12.70 kg

1 pint       = 0.568 litres

1 gallon    = 4.5459 litres

EQUIVALENTS

10 mm                =1 cm

10 cm                 =1 decimetre

10 decimetres   =1 metre

10 metres           =1 decameters

10 decametres   =1 hectometre

10 hectometres =1 km

1 ton              =20 cwt

1 quintal       =  100 kg

1 tonne         = 0.9842 british ton
                       = 1000 kg

1 pound        =  0.453 kg

1 cwt              = 112 ib

1 kg                 = 1.072 seer

1 metric tons = 26.792 mounds

1 acre        =100 sq.m

100 acres  = 1 hectare

1 myriagram  = 10 kg

1 cwt   =  113 lbs

1perch  = 30 ¼ sq. yt

1 rood  = 40 perches

1 sq.mile =640 acre

1 seer   =  0.933 kg

1 maund = 37.32 kg

One bag cement  = 50kg

2 bags   = 1 quintal

20 bags  = 10 quintal




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TYPES OF BRIDGES





What is the bridge?

Bridge is the structure provide passage over on obstacle without closing of the way. The passage may be a road , railway pedestrian etc

TYPES OF BRIDGES

1.timber bridges
2.Masontry bridges
3.Rcc bridges
4.Steel bridges

TIMBER BRIDGES

Timber bridges are classified as temporary bridges. These bridges are very common and are suitable for hill, because they can be constructed with local material and labour very quickly and economically, the cantilever and suspension timber bridges are explained below.

TIMBER CANTILEVER BRIDGE



Timber cantilever bridges are suitable for light traffic the construction of these bridges is very simple layers of timber logs are embedded in the side banks. Another layer of timber logs projecting between 2 to 3 m from the lower layer is laid on it.in this way layer over layers are laid with projections from the bottom laters till 5 to 7 m gap is left in the middle. Road bearers are laid over this gap and the bridge is completed by leveling the surface of earth and stone ballast and the top is giver a smooth finish .

[READ ALSO--TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS]

TIMBER SUSPENSION BRIDGE



In hilly areas for crossing small valley of steam timber suspension bridge. It consists of cables or ropes which bears the load of the roadway through suspenders. The cables are secured anchored to the banks

MASONRY BRIDGE


The super structure of masonry bridges consists of masonry arch over which the roadway is constructed .this arch rests on piers and abutments .the arches may be semi circular semi elliptical parabolic and multi centered types masonry arch bridges are suitable for small span bridges.

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TYPES OF FOUNDATION AND ITS DETAILS

TYPES OF FOUNDATION AND ITS DETAILS



Foundation is the lowest part of the structure .it is used to transmit the load from structure to hard strata of the soil.
The foundation is classified into two types
1.shallow foundation
2.deep foundation

SHALLOW FOUNDATION

When the load is transferred through the shear resistance of the bearing stratum and the depth not more than 3m is called shallow foundation
The depth of the foundation less than or equal to the width of the foundation is also called shallow foundation.

DEEP FOUNDATION

Depth of foundation is more than 3m is called deep foundation. the load is transferred to the load bearing stratum by mean of friction or end bearings. Heavy load buildings are used deep foundation for like multi storied buildings, dams , docks etc.

DETAILS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS
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EQUIPMENT USED FOR CHAIN SURVEYING AND ITS USES

EQUIPMENT USED FOR CHAIN SURVEYING AND ITS USES

There are following equipment are used in chain surveying


1.metric chain
2.arrows
3.metallic tape
4.ranging rods
5.offset rods
6.clinometer
7.cross staff
8.prismatic tape
9.wooden pegs
10.mallet
11.field book

 1. METRIC CHAIN

Metric chain is two types 20m chain and 30 m chain .20 m chain have 100 links and 30 m chain have 150 links .each links 20 cm length. Every 5 mts  tallies are connected .tallies shapes are changed depends upon every 5m length.

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SHORT DEFINITIONS IN SURVEYING PART-1




1.Define Surveying
Surveying Is The Art. To Making Horizontal Measurements To Ascertain Relative Position Of Different Objects On The Surface Of The Earth.

2. Principle Of Surveying
To  Work From The Whole To  The Part
To Locate The New Station By   Atleast  Two Process

3.Primary Classification Of Surveying
  1.Geodetic Surveying
  2.Plane Surveying

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SHORT DEFINITIONS IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT PART-1



IN THIS PAGE I SHARE SOME SHORT DEFINITIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS EQUIPMENT CONSTRUCTION TECHNICS CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY USED TERMS IN CONSTRUCTION  FIELD ETC

1.What is concrete?
Concrete is the binding material. made to mixture of cement or lime with fine aggregate  and coarse aggregate .concrete have high compressive strength

2.Define admixture?
Admixture is the material other than cement fine aggregate coarse aggregate added to the concrete for improve the property of concrete

3.What are the factor affecting workability of concrete?
 There are the factors affecting the workability of concrete is Size of aggregates ,shape of aggregates water content, mix proportion and grading of aggregate .

Ordinary Portland cement
Quick setting cement
Rapid hardening cement
High alumina cement
High strength cement
Acid resisting cement
Color cement
Pozzolana cement
Super sulphate cement
White cement.

5.What are the different methods of mix design?
ACI method
British DOE method
IS code method

6.Define segregation
Segregation is the separation of concrete ingredients like   coarse aggregate fine aggregate  and cement so the concrete have no strength.

7.Define bleeding
Bleeding is the process of separation of cement  from concrete .so the concrete losses there strength

8.purpose  of slumptest
Slump test is used to find out the workability of concrete. This is the empirical method the slump cone size is bottom diameter 20 cm, top diameter 10 cm, height 30 cm

9.chemical composition of ordinary Portland cement
Cao-60 to 65 %
SiO 2 20-25%
AL2O3 4-8%
Fe2O3-24%
MgO-1-3%

10. what are the different types of concrete mixes?
Nominal mix
Standard mixes
Design mixes
11.Define mix design
Mix design is the process of selection of suitable ingredients for the concrete and to determine the relative proportion with the object of producing concrete of certain minimum strength and durability as economy as possible.

12.what is the grade of cement and its types
Grade of cement is based of crushing strength of cement mortar cube of size 7.5 cm cured for 28days
They are classified into there types .grate 33,grade 43,grade 53

13.What is curing
Curing is the process of maintain the cement constructed place in wet condition .to achieve the compressive strength of cement constructed place and reduce the cracks

14.what are methods of curing the concrete
Water curing, membrane curing application of heat, miscellaneous

Accelerators
Retarders
Gas forming agents
Workability agents
Plasticizers
Super plasticize
Air entering agent

16.What is the workability of concrete?
Workability is defined as the amount of work required to place concrete and to compact it thoroughly. workability of concrete is increase with increasing of water content to concrete but it causes to reduce the strength of concrete.

17.define masonry
Masonry is the construction structure it made  either stone masonry or brick masonry .masonry is used to construct buildings dams columns etc.

18.types of masonry
Bricks masonry
Stone masonry
Block masonry

19.classification of stone masonry
Random rubble masonry
Squared rubble masonry
Coursed rubble masonry
Ashlar masonry

20.types of bonds used in brick masonry
English bond
Flemish bond

21.what is English bond

The brick in the facing are laid in alternate courses of headers and stretchers .the header course is commenced with a queen header followed by a queen closer and continued with successive headers the stretcher coursed are formed by stretchers having a minimum lap of one quarter their length over the header.
          
PAGE --1  2  3  4  5

SHORT DEFINITIONS IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL  AND EQUIPMENT PART-2
SHORT DEFINITIONS IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL  AND EQUIPMENT PART-3
SHORT DEFINITIONS IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL  AND EQUIPMENT PART-4
SHORT DEFINITIONS IN CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL  AND EQUIPMENT PART-5

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TYPES OF CEMENTS OR CLASSIFICATION OF CEMENTS



TYPES OF CEMENTS 

cement is the binding material. this is the main ingredient in construction field.the cement is classified into following types.

1.rapid hardening cement
2.low head cement
3.surlfate resisting cement
4.white cement
5.portland pozzolana  cement
6.colured cement
7.hiigh alumina cement
8.expansion cement

1.RAPID HARDENING CEMENT

Rapid hardening cement is similar to ordinary Portland cement but it finer than ordinary Portland cement .it give early strength compared than ordinary Portland cement. Strength of this cement in 3 days is equal to 7 days strength in opc.
Main advantage of this cement is where we want to remove the form work early.

2.LOW HEAT CEMENT

Low heat cement have high C2S and low C3S ,C3A content compared to opc  .initial setting  time of low heat cement is higher than opc. This cement is used in high volume concrete works like construction of dams etc.

3.SULFATE RESISTING CEMENT 

This cement has low C3A  content compared to opc. This content have high resisting capability .this cement is used to construction of river works and foundation where soil have high sulfate content.

4.WHITE CEMENT

White cement is the type of ordinary Portland cement but its  color is pure white. Composition and compressive strength of cement is same as ordinary Portland cement. Iron oxide content is reduced  in opc to obtain pure white colour.raw materials are clay and line power. This cement is used in aesthetic works like swimming pools, exterior architecture works etc.

5.COLORED CEMENT 

This cement is like ordinary Portland cement by it has various colors. Production of colored cement by adding various colors. Production of colored cement by adding  5-10 % mineral pigments with opc during the grinding grinding process .for chlorium oxide gives green color, gobalt produce blue color  manganese dioxide gives black of brown colored cement. Colored cement are used various aesthetic works for interior and exterior works . Most of the times colored cement is used in tiles laying process in flooring.

6.HIGH ALUMINA CEMENT

This cement is manufactured by adding bauxite and lime in specified temperature , this cement also called calcium aluminum cement .it have high strength it achieved maximum strength with in 24 hours adding water .it is used in water construction works.

7.EXPANSION CEMENT

This cement expand during and after construction. its does not shrink this property is achieved by adding some components like sulpho aluminates and stabilizing agent to ordinary cement this cement is mainly used in fill the cracks and grouting works.

8.QUICK SETTING CEMENT

Quick setting cement is used in various works. When we want accelerate the construction time for like under water construction. this cement is manufactured adding small percentage of aluminum sulphate as an accelerator and reducing gypsum content with fine grinding.

ALSO READ-----INGREDIENTS OF CEMENT AND ITS FUNCTIONS

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PROCESS INVOLVED IN MANUFACTURING OF CONCRETE




Good quality of concrete depends upon homogeneous mixture of cement , coarse aggregate ,fine aggregate with water .each ingredients  of concrete have different function. the coarse aggregate act as a filter. fine aggregate fill up the voids between coarse aggregate .the cement conjunction with water act as a binding material. The mobility of the mixture is aided by the cement paste fines , nowadays increasingly use of the admixture .

Quality of concrete based on each process of manufacturing of concrete. Ratio of proportioning of ingredients of concrete is  essence of the mix design .the objective of the quality control is to supervising the batch stage of manufacturing process.

PROCESS INVOLVED IN MANUFACTURING OF CONCRETE

1.     1. Batching or measurement of materials
2.      2.Mixing’
3.      3.Transportation
4.      4.Placing
5.      5.Compacting
6.     6. Curing

BATCHING OF MATERIALS

A good quality of concrete is based proper accurate quantity  of ingredients should be used. the cement ,aggregates and water should be used +3 percent of batching quantity and the admixture by the +5 percent of batching quantity. there are two types of batching are used .the volume batch and the weight batch. The most important work weight batching is used .the factor affecting the choice of batching method are the size of job required production rete, and required standards of batching performance

VOLUME BATCHING

Volume batch is recommended only for the small works only .the amount of concrete ingredients are measured by loose volume using standard box known as volume gauge box. the box is made in wood or the Metal .the amount of solid granular material in a cubic meter will be an indefinite quantity as an example volume of moist sand in a loose condition weights much less than the same volume of dry compacted sand. Cement is always measured by weight irrespective the methods of batching .cement is always measured by weight .the volume of a bag of cement is(50 kg) is 0.035 m3

WEIGHT BATCHING

For all biggest works weight batching is used. Different types of weight batches are used. For small works manually weight batch is done. All the ingredients are measured manually by weight. The weight may be done in ordinary weight platform machine. For large works buckets are used. The bucket is discharge the materials directly into the mixture machine. For automatic batching plants ranging from 
small to large operated by manually or electrically.

MIXING

The next process is mixing .strength of the concrete is based on the mixing of ingredients. Homogeneous mixing process is mix the cement to aggregates correctly. All the aggregate particles should have a coat of cement paste and all the ingredients of the concrete should blend into a uniform mass .the mixing is done either by hand or machine

HAND MIXING

Hand mixing is done by only small works .batched quantity of fine aggregate and cement is spread over the impervious floor then mix with hand using hand mixing equipment’s .then the coarse aggregate is added to the mix .all the three materials are mixed through .water is added finally and mix one more time until than when color is achieved

MACHINE MIXING

For quality and large works machine mix is done. Machine mixing is broadly classified as patch mixing and continuous mixing.in small and medium works patch mixer is used. batches are batch with time interval .whereas continuous mixer is produce the concrete until the plant is working. continuous mixer is used for large size works. Ex dams

TRANSPORTATION OF CONCRETE

The concrete can be transmitted either by normally of mechanically. For small works concrete are transmitted manually by using pans, wheel carts. for large and massive works the concrete is transported by buckets or by pumps which are operated mechanically .
Chutes are used to transport the concrete to lower lever
A barrow lift attached to scaffolding is used to hoist concrete to upper floors

PLACING OF CONCRETE


Placing of concrete is the process of depositing the concrete in its required position. concrete should be placed in position in a proper manner as early as possible within the initial setting time of the cement. some of the time admixture is used to increasing the initial setting time.

COMPACTION OF CONCRETE

Compaction is the process or removal of air voids from the concrete. because air voids in concrete make the vacuum it decrease the concrete strength .compaction may be done manually or mechanically .in manual process damping rods are used .in mechanical process vibrators are used .small size of works manual compaction process is done. Large size works vibrators are used. vibrators are classified into three types, internal vibrators ,external vibrators and table vibrators

CURING OF CONCRETE


The concrete surface are maintain moisture condition in certain period after the placing of concrete is done is called curing.so as to increase the concrete strength .it consists of control of temperature and of the moisture movement from and into the concrete. The period of curing is depends on the types of work and nature of works. For ordinary Portland cement the period of curing time is from 7 days to 14 days. if rapid cement is used the curing time is reduced 

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ALSO READ-----SLUMP TEST TO FIND OUT THE WORKABILITY OF CONCRETE

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SLUMP CONE TEST TO FIND OUT THE WORKABILITY OF CONCRETE


Slump test is the simplest workability find out method or consistency  find out method for concrete.Slump method may be done at the construction site or laboratory.Concrete slump test is carried at construction site for each batch because to maintain the uniform quality of concrete for all the batches.This is empirical test measure the workability of concrete.Slump test is the very very low expansive method of finding workability of fresh concrete also its provide the result immediately
Due to this reason slump test is used all over the world to find the workability or consistency of concrete

Slump test is proceed as per procedure mentioned in ASTM C143 united states is 1199 -1959 in india
Slump test is carried in construction field generally to find out the workability of concrete
Many factors like water cement ratio, material quality cement quality, aggregate size and shapes are affected the slump value.In this test maximum aggregate size does not exceed 38 mm

Apparatus required

1 slump cone
2. tamping rod (size 60 mm long 16 mm dia)
3.non porous base plate
4.measuring scale

About slump cone

Slump cone has 30 cm height ,20 cm bottom diameter,10 cm top diameter
Both side handle is provided to lift the cone vertically

Procedure for slump cone test

1.first clean the inner surface of the slump cone and apply the oil
2.place the slump cone on the non porous steel base plate
3.take the sample and fill with in the slump cone with four layer
4.each layer have equal height and tamp each layer with 25 strokes with the use of tamping rod
5.remove the excess concrete from the top surface and level the surface with trowel
6.clean cement leaked outer surface of the slump cone
7.raising the mold slowly and carefully immediately in vertical direction
8.measure the slump value as difference between the slump height to the tested concrete specimen height that is the slump value
9.keep in mind slump testing place carried out free from vibration because it affect the exact slump value

Measurement of slump

The slump value is take in term of mm

Types of slump

The shapes of the slump concrete specimen is varied in three shapes
1. true slump
2.shear slump
3.collapse slump

True slump

True slump is measure in the test slump of the concrete is distance between top of the concrete and top of the slump cone

Shear slump

Shear slump indicate the slump value is not find out and the sample is to be retested

Collapsed slump

Collapsed slump indicate the high workability of concrete or high level wet concrete .it may affect the concrete strength

Recommended slump value for various types of concrete works

s.no
Structures

Slump value
1
Mass concrete works
25-50 mm
2
Deck slab in bridge
30- 75 mm
3
Vibrated concrete
12- 25 mm
4
pavements
20-30 mm
5
Beam and slab
50-100 mm
6
Column retaining wall
75- 150 m

Application of slump test

1.the slump test is used to maintained the uniform quality of concrete in different batches
2 simplest method so its made any place and any time
3.low and high slump value warning to the patch operator to maintain water level

ALSO READ----CLASSIFICATION OF CONCRETE ADMIXTURES 

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CLASSIFICATION OF CONCRETE ADMIXTURES





Admixtures are the construction materials other than water aggregate and cement .that are added to the concrete before or during mixing of concrete. Admixtures are used to improve the properties of concrete the uses of concrete should offer an improvement not economically attainable by adjusting the proportions of cement and aggregates and should not adversely affect any properties of the concrete

very small amount of admixture is added to the concrete. excess amount of admixture can change the properties of concrete



FUNCTION OF ADMIXTURE



1.to accelerate the initial setting time of concrete

2.to retard the initial setting time

3.to improve the strength of concrete

4.to improve the strength of concrete

5.to inhibit the corrosion of concrete

6.to increase the durability of concrete

7.to increase the bond between concrete to the steel

8.to increase chemical residence to the concrete

9.to reduce the segregation in grout mixtures

10 to decrease the weight of concrete

11. to increase bond bw old and new concrete surface

CLASSIFICATION OF ADMIXTURES

1.air entraining agents

2.retarders

3.accelerators

4.water proofers

5.pozzolana

6.pigments

7.Workability agents



1.Air entraining agents

Air entraining agents are used to increase the workability of concrete to improve resistance to weather and action of frost.

2.retarders

Retarders are used to delay the setting time of concrete. Calcium sulphate in the form of gypsum is generally added during the manufacture of cement to retard the setting Time. some other materials which are effectively used to retard the rate of hydration are ammonium chloride, ferrous and ferrous and ferric chlorides

3.accelerators

Accelerators are used to decrease the setting time of concrete without affecting strength of concrete. the most commonly used accelerator is calcium chloride .sodium chloride may used to acceleration of concrete

4.water proofers

Water proofers are used in the form of powder liquid and paste and consists of pore filling materials or water repelling materials they can be chemically active or inactive .alkaline silicates notably silica of soda aluminum and zinc sulphates . aluminium and calcium chlorides are the chief pore filling materials these are all chemically active and hence may accelerate the setting time of the concrete thus making it more impervious at an early age

5.pozzolana

A pozzolana is a silicious materials. which its self don’t have cementititous properties will either be processed or unprocessed and its finally divided form. React in the presence of water with lime normal temperatures to form compounds of low solubility having cementitious properties.

Advantages

Following advantages are achieved to use of the pozzolanas

1.obtain maximum workability with using small amount of water

2.attacks from salt arid sulphates is reduced

3.calcium hydroxide leaching is reduced

4.heat of hydration is reduced

Disadvantages

1.strength development is slowed

2.durability may be decreased

3.shrinkage may be increased

6.pigments

Pigments are the substances are used to produce the coloured cement .the main pigments used in concrete are brown, black ,red, green, blue, and yellow .to produce the colouring effect , the pigment should be ground with cement in a ball mill.

7.Workability agents
Workability agents are used to increase the workability of concrete. Workability and water reducing agents are same .many materials appear to perform all these function

Workability agents some times may be in the form of powder.some times much finer than the cement.

Workability agent chemicals are classified into three types

Organic acid ,lignosulfonates and carbohydrates. Excessive use of workability agents some times may cause shrinkage of concrete

FUNCTIONS
1.Its is used to spreading of cement over the fine aggregates

2.its wets the surface of the aggregates

3.its used to increase the binding properties of concrete

ALSO READ------ PROCESS INVOLVED IN MANUFACTURING OF CONCRETE

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HOW TO CALCULATE WATER TANK SIZE AND CAPACITY

HOW TO CALCULATE WATER TANK SIZE AND CAPACITY



In commercial building usually  the design data of water tank is provided by the design engineer. But most of the time we want to construct residential building. at the time water tank design is required.so the topic we are discussed about water tank design of residential building .

we consider 5 members in this family so the water tank is designed to for this data.

in India per capita  demand=135 liters/day/person
135 liters of water is required for one person per day

Total amount of water is required for 5 members= 5x135
                                                                                       =675 liters
               Unit weight of water                                    =1000 liters/m3
               Assume the depth of water tank               =0.6m
                                                                      675 liters=0.675 m3
              Volume of water tank                                  =0.675 m3
                                                                  L X B X D     =volume (0.675 m3 )
                                                          L X B X 0.6          =0.675
                                                                      LB            =0.675/0.6
                                                                      LB            =1.125
We want any one dimension
                                                                So that L      =2 xB
                                                                     2 B2         =1.125
                                                                    B2             =1.125/2
                                                                    B2             = 0.5625
                                                                    B               =0.75 m
                                                                     L                = 2B
                                                                                       =2 x 0.75
                                                                    L                  = 1.5 m
                                                    Provide free board  =0.2m
RESULT

Size or water tank

Length=1.5m
Breadth=0.75

Depth=0.8 m(0.6m+free board 0.2m)

ALSO READ-----INGREDIENTS OF CEMENTS AND ITS FUNCTIOS

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