Derivation for d2/162



Hello every civil engineers. We know that d2/162  is the formula to find out the weight of circular steel bar per metre length . but some persons don’t know how  is arrived

So I will explain  how this formula is arrived.
Weight of circular shape steel bar per metre length = area x length x unit weight of steel



Unit weight of steel = 7850 kg/m3
Therefore,  weight = πD2/4 x 1000 x ( (7850/1000 x1000 x 1000 ) )
put all the values in ‘mm’
= 0.7854 x D2 x ((7850/1000 x 1000 ))
= D2 x ( ( 6162.25 / 1000 x 1000 ) )
= D2 X 0.006162
= D2 x 1 / (0.006162 )-1
= D2 /162.28
So we take
Weight of steel bar per metre length = D2 /162

Note : why use this step 1 / (0.006162 )-1  . because 0.006162   is equal to 1 / (0.006162 )-1   but 0.006162  is six digit value It is not remember in our mind therefore this step is used for our remembrance. 

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How To Check The Quality of Sand At Site


Sand is the main part of construction. Sand used for plastering, concreting, brick work and stone masonry.

Sand is one of the main constituent of mortar and concrete, in concrete purpose of mixing of sand is to fill the voids between course aggregates. And in between voids of sand is filled with cement.

Sand is known as fine aggregate. Sand is formed buy the action of weather on the rocks. Many types of sands are used in construction field . They are river sand, Sea sand and pit sand . But cement mortar and concrete works mostly river sand is used.

The size of aggregate live between 75 microns to 4.75 mm is called fine aggregate ( sand) .
If the quality of sand is not good then the quality of work is not satisfied. Because sand is major part of concrete and mortar, so it affects work quality.

How to check quality of sand at site. Below I will provide some simple tests instead of laboratories test. because we don’t have much time and equipment at site. The following main tests are perform quickly at site to find the quality of sand.

1.Clay content test
2.Organic impurities test 
3.Silt test
4.Salt test 
5.Earth matters.

1. CLAY TEST.

The presence of clay in sand is to affect the actual compressive strength of concrete. The presence of clay in sand is finding out by doing below simple test at site.




Take a glass bottle fill some amount of sand then add some quantity of water. Then shake it 10 times and allow some times to settle. If the clay is present in sand. It will form layer at the water surface. So the quality of sand is not good.



In second method take some amount of wet sand in your hand then drop it. If the presence of clay in sands it make cohesion in your hand.


2. PRESENCE OF ORGANIC IMPURITIES IN SAND.



To find the presence of organic impurities in sand . Take some amount sand and add it to sodiyem hudroxide.then shake the solution for 1 minute. If the colour is change to brown. It indicate the presence of organic impurities in sand.

3. SILT CONTENT TEST



Take a glass bottle add some amount of sand and add some amount of water as well as salt into the bottle. Then shake it sometimes after shaking then allow it to settle at least 10 hours. If the silt is present in sand it will form a layers above the sand layer.

4.SALT TEST



This is simple and easy method to check the presence of salt in sand.Take small amount of sand in your hand and taste it . If the presence of salt in sand it will make salty taste.

5.EARTHY MATTERS.

Almost earthy matters are present in sand. It is the common issue. To check the presence of earthy matters in sand at site we mainly prepare following physical test.


Take partially sand in your one hand and rub it with in your other hand. Then leave the sand from your hand. If the light marks are appear in your hand it indicate the presence of earthy matters ( sand ) .

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HOW TO CHECK QUALITY OF BRICK AT SITE


Bricks will take place major parts of the building . If the quality of brick is worst , then it can cause serious damage to whole parts of the building . Therefore it is necessary to check the minimum quality of brick before using of construction. there some simple field tests that we can conduct in the field in order to check the quality of brick 

THE FOLLOWING TESTS ARE

1. Water absorption test
2. Size colour and shape
3. Dimension
4. Hardness
5. Soundness
6. Structure 
7. Efflorescence test

WATER ABSORPTION TEST

For the proposer of find out the water absorption test. Taken for five procurement bricks . Then weight it in dry condition and the average dry weight is calculated.

Then immerse this five bricks into water for 24 hours. After 24 hours taken it out and weight it again in wet condition and calculate the average weight of five bricks. 

The difference between average weights of the of wet bricks to the dry brick Indicate the water absorption of brick . The water absorption does not exceed 20 % of weight of dry brick .

If the brick tend to absorb more water than its limits. it will cause decrease the strength of mortar because the brick absorb water from mortar.

SIZE COLOUR AND SHAPE.



The colour of well burnt brick is red or copper . other than this two colors that bricks are over burnt or under burnt . So this bricks are not used for any construction works.

Size of brick is uniform does not bulk in any sides. More bulk need more mortar so the cost of construction is exceed actual cost.

DIMENSION 



Edges of bricks should be sharp. Variation in dimensions are allowed only with this limit +- 3 % tolerance for first class and +,- 8 % tolerance of second and third class bricks.

HARDNESS AND SOUNDNESS



Good quality brick so hard. In this test just scratch a brick with your finger nail .if the brick is good then there is no impression on the brick.



Struck one brick to another brick. if a good brick make clear ring sound. Otherwise the quality of brick is low.



Take  a brick and drop it above the hard floor from 1.2 m to 1.5 m height . if the brick is  good then the brick not break.

EFFLORESCENCE 



If sodium and potassium salts are presence in the brick this will cause white patches on the brick surface that is called efflorescence.

 Brick production soil should be free from sulphate, potassium and sodium . When bricks are contact to water this sale dissolved and this will cause major defects on plastering surface. So this bricks are not allowed for construction.

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METHOD OF DEWATERING AT CONSTRUCTION SITE


WHAT IS DEWATERING 

For construction of building, dams, other structures it is required excavation for foundation most of the times foundation  depth may be below the water table at that time seepage of water disturbed the work therefore seepage of water is removed from the excavation that process is dewatering.
Dewatering process of each site varies depends upon depth of excavation geological conditions and characteristics of soil.

METHODS   OF DEWATERING

THE FOLLOWING METHODS OF DEWATERING SYSTEMS ARE APPLIED AT CONSTRUCTION SITE.

1.pumping 
2, providing sumps and side chairs 
3.well point systems
a. single stage system 
b. multible stage system 
c, vacuum system
4, chemical grouting
5. freeing process
6.electro osmosis process

PUMPING

For these methods pumps are installed in excavated foundation trenches at suitable place which point is water stagnation. The stagnation water is removed from foundation trenches through the pumping system.

THE PUMPING SYSTEM MUST HAVE THE FOLLOWING FEATURES

 The pump should be small and portable because easily moved where we want to dewatering

The pump is must have the capable of removing of water mixed with sand clay etc.

The pump should be made of quality materials and strong
The efficiency of the pump require good
Providing sumps and side drains

In this method drains are formed along the longitudinal direction of the foundation trench. For every 40m to 60m distance sumps are constructed. small gradient is provided in drain for easy drain of water to the sumps. Sump is collected water from drain, then this water is pumped through centrifugal pump. The sump is formed in semi circular shape with diameter 0.2m and above.

WELL POINT SYSTEM

Well point dewatering method series of wells are formed into required depth in excavated area from where the water has to be released  out 
In this wells are formed in series line in 2m spacing.

WELL POINT 

Well point is a pipe it is one metre long and 0.4m to 0.5m in diameter. In bottom end of the well point pipe a valve is fitted. the valve is opened when water is pumped into pipe and it is closed when suction is applied pipe and it is closed when suction is applied into well point pipe. Inflow pipe is provided into well point pipe. Inflow pipe is provided holes and these holes are covered with mesh screen.

RISER

Riser is the vertical pipe driven into the ground. riser is connecting well point pipe to the flexible swipe pipe. Responsible of the riser is discharging the water away from the excavated depth. Top end of the riser a flexible swing pipe is connected. The purpose of swinger pipe is just for understands what being pumped. Dia of riser is 40 mm to 50 mm.

HEADER

Header is the horizontal pipe. all the swinger pipes are connected with this header pipe. Header pipe is connected to water pump.

PROCESS OF WELL POINT SYSTEM.

The area to be dewatered is surrounded by number of well points. The spacing of dewatering system is depends upon nature of soil condition and ground water table. minimum spacing is 1m.

Water is forced through the well point at the rate of 20 to 25 litters per second. Well point is automatically inserted into the ground with the help of water pressure and without process of driving.

When the well point is reached the required depth water forces is stopped . for this high pressure of water make annular spacing around the well point.

Then around the spacing of well point system. Filter media of sand and gravel is filled for the purpose of preventing the entry of soil into the system. then forcing of water down is stopped and suction is applied through the well point with the help of water pumping system. Water is removed from the ground and thus the original water table is lowered.

The work of excavation is started. when the work of excavation is completed this suction process is stopped . then water is pumped force  into the pipe this make around the well point loosen the ground and the system is recovered.

SINGLE STAGE SYSTEM

The water lifting depth is about 5m or so . The depth of excavation is not to exceed 5m in this system the whole setup is not sifted until the excavation process is done.

MULTIPLE STAGE SYSTEM.

When the depth of excavation is exceed 5 metres below the water table second stage well point is provided. For first stage well point is provided up to 5m depth . In the second stage well point is provided next 5m depth from first stage excavation surface.

CHEMICAL GROUTING

This method is similar to well point system first one chemical is forced through well point system and it will be stopped when the desired depth is reached. Then another chemical is forced through pipe and the pipe is withdrawn. Two chemical are react and make the soil solidify.

TYPES OF CHEMICAL GROUTING

INORGANIC CHEMICAL – include sodium silicate lingo chemical and lingo sulphate etc.

ORGANIC CHEMICALS- include epoxy resin polyester and other resins.

FREEZING PROCESS

In this method. the surrounding area of excavation is frozen and thus a solid wall of frozen earth formed. The process of freezing process is cold water is applied into earth the cold water freezing the ground water and thus solid soil wall is formed with the help of freezing water.

PROCEDURE

A refrigeration plant is installed near to the site.

A 10 cm to 15 cm dia pipe is inserted into ground desired depth . the spacing between the pipe is 1m to 1.5m . the pipes are closed at bottom.

Another pipe of 2.5 cm to 5 cm pipe is inserted into larger dia pipe. The bottom of the pipe is not closed.

All the small pipes are connected to the single pipe and closed circuit is formed. Larger pipes are connected similarly. 

 The cold liquid temperature about -23 0 c to 300  c is passed through larger pipe and come out through smaller pipe.

This cause the ground to freeze around the pipe. A solid wall of frozen earth of considerable thickness is formed.

ELECTRO OSMOSIS PROCESS

In this process two electrode one positive and other one is negative are driven in the saturated soil. Then electricity is applied tow electrodes.

The water contained in soil is repeated by positive electrode and is attracted negative electrode the water can be collected in it and then it can be pumped out.




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HOW TO PREPARE DATA FOR VARIOUS ITEMS OF WORKS


Preparation of estimation in many work first we want to prepare the data for various item of works. Date  provide all the details like requirement of materials in each item of work , requirement of labor in each item of work . Sometimes preparation of date is the complicate process. So I will provide data format for various items of works. This date just provide some idea for civil engineers how to prepare date. Labor unit may be vary state to state and country to country.
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VITAL CALCULATIONS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS MUST TO KNOW


Hi civil engineers today I will share some useful calculations . this calculations are fundamental for civil engineers. therefore this calculations are used most of the times to calculate various materials like cement and sand volume in mortar ,brick volume in brick word, cement ,sand and aggregate in concrete, volume of steel in reinforced cement concrete.

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HOW TO FIND VALUE OF BUILDING AND LAND WITH EXAMPLE PROBLEM


In This Lesson Lets Learn   How To Find Value Of Land. Most Of The Times This Points Required For Civil Engineer. As A Civil Engineer It Is Most Before Going To Problem First We Want To Know Some Terms In Valuation Calculation Process. That Points Are Below

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WHAT IS BAR BENDING SCHEDULE (BBS) AND HOW TO PREPARE BAR BENDING SCHEDULE FOR ONE WAY ROOF SLAB WITH DESIGN EXAMPLE.


WHAT IS BAR BENDING SCHEDULE AND ITS REQUIREMENT

Bar Bending Schedule Is Nothing But The Process Of Calculation Of Steel Bar Length And Total Weight Of Steel Bars In Reinforced Cement Concrete Element.
The Bar Bending Schedule Provide The Detailed Quantity Of Steel Bars In Rcc.
Each Type Of Rcc Elements Have Steel In Different Shapes .The Shapes Include Band Up Bars Cranked Hooks And Over Lap.
Different Shapes Have Different Formulas To Find Out Its Length .
Proper Drawing And Rc Design Details Are Required To Prepare Bar Bending Schedule.
In Case The Drawing Are Not Available The Quantity Of Steel Is Calculated Approximately In Percentage  Basis.
The Percentage Of Steel Varies From Structure To Structures And Design To Design.
The Absence Of Detailed Design And Drawing The Percentage Of Reinforcements Are Assume For The Follows.

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