### HOW TO PREPARE DATA FOR VARIOUS ITEMS OF WORKS

### VITAL CALCULATIONS FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS MUST TO KNOW

Hi civil engineers today I will share some
useful calculations . this calculations are fundamental for civil engineers.
therefore this calculations are used most of the times to calculate various
materials like cement and sand volume in mortar ,brick volume in brick word,
cement ,sand and aggregate in concrete, volume of steel in reinforced cement
concrete.

### TOP FIVE ELECTRONIC DEVICES FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS MUST TO BUY

Hello engineers we are using many tools to take measurements. for many users using old analogue tools like measuring tape, sprit level etc. in this post I will explain you about available digital tools to take measurements and right angle etc.

May be many persons know about this tools but someone don’t know about this . so in this post is useful for they.

I was listed some tools below.

1.digital measuring tap.

2.Bosch GLM laser distance measure.

3.digital sprit level.

4.generic laser line projection square level right angle 90 degree measure tool.

5.Prismatic compass.

1.DIGITAL MEASURING TAP

Most of the engineering and field technicians are used analogy measuring tape. Until this time but now available digital measuring tape. It is vary user friendly also rich look so any one want to buy this click here to buy.

2.BOSCH GLM LASER DISTANCE MEASURE

This is very attractive tool. Laser distance measure device is used to measure the distance between two points very easy, also don’t have two person to take reading just single person used for this tool.you want to buy this click here to buy

3.DIGITAL SPRIT LEVEL.

We are used analogue sprit level is to maintain correct angle now available digital sprit level to used it is very easy . its give now experience.click here to buy.

4. GENERIC LASER LINE PROJECTION SQUARE LEVEL RIGHT ANGLE 90 DEGREE MEASURE TOOL.

This tool is used to set tight angle just single click. We want to set the right angle to marking of building layout and many more places, this is just electronic laser device, if you want to but this just click to buy.

5.PRISMATIC COMPASS

This compass like a prismatic compass is this just used to find out the magnetic north direction .this is may be helpful for civil engineers. If you want to but this click to buy.

IS IT USEFUL FOR YOU THEN PLEASE SHARE AND SUBSCRIBE

If you have any query about that post then ask in comment section below I will reply as early as possible

### WHAT IS BAR BENDING SCHEDULE (BBS) AND HOW TO PREPARE BAR BENDING SCHEDULE FOR ONE WAY ROOF SLAB WITH DESIGN EXAMPLE.

WHAT IS BAR BENDING SCHEDULE AND ITS REQUIREMENT

Bar Bending Schedule Is Nothing But The Process Of
Calculation Of Steel Bar Length And Total Weight Of Steel Bars In Reinforced
Cement Concrete Element.

The Bar Bending Schedule Provide The Detailed Quantity Of
Steel Bars In Rcc.

Each Type Of Rcc Elements Have Steel In Different Shapes
.The Shapes Include Band Up Bars Cranked Hooks And Over Lap.

Different Shapes Have Different Formulas To Find Out Its
Length .

Proper Drawing And Rc Design Details Are Required To Prepare
Bar Bending Schedule.

In Case The Drawing Are Not Available The Quantity Of Steel
Is Calculated Approximately In Percentage
Basis.

The Percentage Of Steel Varies From Structure To Structures
And Design To Design.

The Absence Of Detailed Design And Drawing The Percentage Of
Reinforcements Are Assume For The Follows.

### WHAT IS ONE WAY SLAB AND HOW TO DESIGN ONE WAY SLAB WITH DESIGN EXAMPLE FOR A BUILDING PLAN ALSO WITH BAR BENDING SCHEDULE

WHAT IS ONE WAY SLAB

A slab is supported only one direction that is one way slab now tha loads are transferred only this two supports .therefore the main reinforcements are provided perpendicular to supported direction.

Also the slab is supported four sides but the length breadth ( ly/lx)ration is greater than or equal to two , the slab is designed as one way slab. Therefore assumed the loads are transferred only one direction and designed that slab is one way slab.

### WHAT IS DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAM AND HOW TO DESIGN DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAM WITH DESIGN EXAMPLE

__WHAT IS DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAM__

Concrete Have High Compression Strength And Very Low Tensile Strength For In This Reason Steel Reinforcement Is Provided For Tension Zone Because Steel Reinforcement Have High Tensile Strength.

For Single Reinforced Beam Reinforcement Is Provided Only Tension Zone Only (Bottom Side Of Beam) Other Case Both Tension And Compression Zone Of Beam Is Provided Reinforcement (Top And Bottom Of Beam ) That Is Called Doubly Reinforced Beam.

For Singly Reinforced Beam Minimum Two Numbers Of Bares Provided In Compression zone But It Does Not Consider For Moment Of Resistance Calculation .When We Consider This Reinforced Steel Bas Are Calculation Of Moment Of Resistance At The Time We Have To Provide Additional Tension Steel In Tension Zone Therefore To Reduced The Over Reinforced Section.

For Design Of Doubly Reinforced Beam First Find Out Limiting Moment Of Resistance And Area Of Tension Steel ( Ast ) In Singly Reinforced Section Then To Find Area Of Compression Steel (Asc) And Area Of Addition Tension Steel (Ast) To Resistance The Excess Bending Moment (Mu2)

### DESIGN OF SIMPLY SUPPORTED SINGLY REINFORCED BEAM

A singly supported rectangular beam is to be provided over a clear span 10 m to carry on load of 25 KN/m excluding its self-weight .design mid section using M20 grade concrete and fe 415 steel assume width of support as 300 mm

SOLUTION

Trial section

Clear span of the baam =10m

Assume effective depth of the beam d = span/12

= 10000 / 12

= 833 mm

Say 850 mm

Assume breadth of the beam b = 0.4d

= 0.4 x 850

= 340 mm

Say 350 mm

Assume eff cover = 50 mm

Over all depth D = 850 + 50 =900 mm

LOADS

Loads on the beam = 25 KN/M

Self weight of the beam = 0.35 x 0.9 x 1 x 25

Total characteristic load = 25 + 7.875

= 32.875 KN/m

Taking the partial safety factor = 1.5

Design load Wu = 1.5 x 32.875

Wu = 49.313 KN/m

EFFECTIVE SPAN

Effective span of the beam is least of

1. c/c distance of support = 10 + 0.3

= 10.30 m

2.clear span + eff.depth = 10 + 0.85

= 10.85m

So eff span lef = 10.3 m

Design bending moment

Design bending moment at mid span mu = WU l2/ 8

MU = (49.313 x 10.32)/8

= 653.95 KN.M

= 653.95 x 106 N.MM

Effective depth requirement

For Balanced section of M20 grade of concrete

Mu lim=2.76 bd2

D2 =mulim/2.76 b

D =Mulim2.76b

D =653.95 X 1062.76 X 350

D = 822 mm

We are take already eff.depth d =850 mm

So 822 mm < 850 mm

Provided depth is more than required depth Hence ok

AREA OF STEEL REQUIREMENT

Resisting moment of under reinforced section

Mu=0.87 fy Ast [d-(fy Ast/fck b)]

Fy= tensile strength of steel

Fck=compressive strength of concrete

Ast= Area of steel

B= breadth of beam

Mu=design bending moment

653.95 X 106 = 0.87 x 415 x Ast [850-(415 Ast/20 x 350)]

Ast = 2600 mm2

Provide 6 numbers of 25 mm dia bars (Area = 2940 mm2 )

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If you have any query about that post then ask in comment section below I will reply as early as possible